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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ORGANIC AND REDUCED INPUT FRESH MARKET SPECIALTY CROP PRODUCTION SYSTEMS FOR THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS Title: Peanut pod, seed, and oil yield for biofuel following conventional and organic production systems

Authors
item Russo, Vincent
item WEBBER, CHARLES

Submitted to: Industrial Crops and Products
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 10, 2012
Publication Date: March 15, 2012
Citation: Russo, V.M., Webber III, C.L. 2012. Peanut pod, seed, and oil yield for biofuel following conventional and organic production systems. Industrial Crops and Products. 39:113-119.

Interpretive Summary: Increase in demand for organic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) makes it increasingly necessary to develop organic production methods for peanuts, and weed control is the number one research priority for organic crop producers. Corn gluten meal (CGM) and vinegar are weed control materials that have been successful use in other organic cropping systems. Research was conducted at Lane, Oklahoma in 2009 and 2010 to determine the impact of weed control systems for two high oil peanut cultivars produced following either wheat or red clover winter cover crops. The weed control treatments included a conventional (non-organic) weed control treatment compared to a cultivation only treatment, and different combinations of cultivation, CGM, and vinegar. Pod, oil yields, and seed oil percentages were determined over two years in the high oil cultivars Olin and Tam Runner. In 2009, the conventional weed control treatment produced greater pod yields with clover (8,216 kg/ha) and wheat (7,797 kg/ha) cover crops, compared to all the alternative weed control treatments. When averaged across cover crops, the conventional treatment produced greater seed oil yields (295.9 L/ha) and few differences in seed oil percentages. In 2010, the conventional weed control treatment produced superior seed oil yield and oil percentage for both cover crops and cultivars, and greater pod yields for the wheat cover crop and both cultivars and Tam Runner with clover as a cover crop. Application of CGM and vinegar did not produce pod or oil yields at levels produced with conventional weed control, and/or reduced seed oil percentage. Further research should investigate additional alternative weed control systems that would increase weed control efficacy for organic peanut production systems.

Technical Abstract: Increase in demand for organic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) makes it increasingly necessary to develop organic methods in their production. Corn gluten meal (CGM) and vinegar are materials used in organic weed control. These were used alone, or in conjunction with cultivation, to evaluate their efficacy for weed control in peanut that had followed winter cover crops of red clover or wheat. Comparisons were made to conventional weed control (S-metolachlor, 181 g/ha) and cultivation only. Pod and oil yields and seed oil percentages were determined over two years in high oil cultivars Olin and Tam Runner. In 2009, cover crop, cultivar, and weed control treatments resulted in significant interactions impacting pod, seed oil yields, and seed oil percentages. Conventional weed control produced greater pod yields with clover (8,216 kg/ha) and wheat (7,797 kg/ha) cover crops, compared to all the alternative weed control treatments. When averaged across cover crops, the conventional treatment produced greater seed oil yields (295.9 L/ha) and few differences in seed oil percentages. In 2010, the conventional weed control treatment produced superior seed oil yield and oil percentage for both cover crops and cultivars, and greater pod yields for the wheat cover crop and both cultivars and Tam Runner with clover as a cover crop. Application of CGM and vinegar did not produce pod or oil yields at levels produced with conventional weed control, and/or reduced seed oil percentage. Further research should investigate additional alternative weed control systems that would increase weed control efficacy for organic peanut production systems.

Last Modified: 8/27/2014
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