DISCOVERY AND UTILIZATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS FROM NEW CROPS AND AGRICULTURAL CO-PRODUCTS
Location: Functional Foods Research Unit
Title: Potential uses for cuphea oil processing byproducts and processed oils
Submitted to: Industrial Crops and Products
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 14, 2011
Publication Date: July 13, 2011
Citation: Tisserat, B., Harry O Kuru, R.E., Cermak, S.C., Evangelista, R.L., Doll, K.M. 2012. Potential uses for cuphea oil processing byproducts and processed oils. Industrial Crops and Products. 35:111-120.
Interpretive Summary: Cuphea spp. provides medium chain fatty acids that could effectively replace imported coconut and oil palm oils. However, one of the main problems with commercialization of any oil seed crop is the effective utilization/disposal of bi-products and ag-wastes. This study sought to develop potential commercial products for Cuphea seed oil bi-products and ag-wastes. Bin trash and presscake could be employed as organic soil amendments. In the refinement of oil seed, gums and soap stocks bi-products are generated which are suitable “environmentally-friendly” herbicides. The calorific values of various ag-wastes were found to be comparable to currently employed biomass energy crops, therefore offering another commercial application.
Cuphea spp. has seeds that contain high levels of medium chain fatty acids and have the potential to be commercially cultivated. In the course of processing and refining Cuphea oil a number of bi-products are generated. Developing commercial uses for these bi-products would improve the economics of growing cuphea. Oil fractions and bi-products were obtained from processed seeds of cuphea germplasm line PSR 23 (Cuphea viscosissima × C. lanceolata). We investigated the employment of oil bi-products as growth regulators and solid residues as organic soil amendments on Calabrese broccoli (Brassica oleracea L, family Brassicaceae) seedling growth. Seed processing solid residue fractions, included presscake, bin trash, stems, and seeds. These fractions were ground and mixed into soil to obtain concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 3, and 10% (w/w). Ground presscake and bin trash could be employed as an organic soil amendment up to 1% without detrimental effects on broccoli. Ground seed meal was detrimental to seedling growth at all concentrations tested. Stem trash employed at 1% caused fresh and dry weights to increase 26.8 and 29.8%, respectively, compared to untreated broccoli seedlings. Stem trash could be employed up to 10% without a detrimental effect on broccoli seedlings. Solvent extraction to remove residual oils from residue fractions was also conducted to generate improved soil amendments. Generally, solvent extraction of seed-processing residue fractions improved the broccoli seedling growth responses. Administration of processed oils and their bi-product fractions as foliar sprays on broccoli seedlings was conducted at rates of 0, 10, 30, and 50 g.L-1. Data was evaluated 72 hrs after spraying. Refined and crude oils had no effect on broccoli seedlings; gums and soapstock sprays had no effect at 10 or 30 g.L-1 concentrations but at 50 g.L-1 it killed seedlings. Distilled fatty acid fraction sprays killed broccoli seedlings at all tested concentrations. Certain oil bi-product fractions from cuphea oil processing can be employed as “environmentally-friendly” herbicidal sprays. Calorific evaluation of cuphea ag-wastes were conducted and found to compare well to other biomass energy sources.