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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED PEANUT GERMPLASM AND RESISTANCE TO DISEASE AND NEMATODE PESTS Title: Marker-assisted breeding for wild species-derived traits in arachis

Authors
item Chu, Y -
item Wu, C -
item Ozias-Akins, P -
item Holbrook, C

Submitted to: American Peanut Research and Education Society Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: May 21, 2011
Publication Date: December 15, 2011
Citation: Chu, Y., Wu, C., Ozias-Akins, P., Holbrook Jr, C.C. 2011. Marker-assisted breeding for wild species-derived traits in arachis. Proceedings of American Peanut Research and Education Society. 43:89.

Interpretive Summary: not required

Technical Abstract: The recent evolutionary origin of tetraploid peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., imposed a genetic bottleneck on the species and limited variation for pest and disease resistance genes within the cultivated gene pool. However, considerable diversity for these resistance traits and at the molecular level has been identified over the last two decades among wild relatives of peanut, some of which are cross compatible with cultivated peanut. A few groups have persevered in utilizing wild germplasm to transfer traits of interest into cultivated peanut and these materials are being widely accessed by peanut breeders. A trait of particular benefit that was introgressed into cultivated peanut from A. cardenasii is resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria, the root-knot nematode. Given that molecular polymorphisms are frequent between wild and cultivated Arachis species, molecular markers can identify introgressed chromosomal segments associated with nematode resistance. We have used molecular markers associated with traits of interest to facilitate the combination of nematode resistance with high oleic/linoleic acid ratio in advanced breeding materials. Using high-throughput DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction based methods, breeder-scale numbers of plants can be efficiently screened at the seed or seedling stage.

Last Modified: 11/20/2014
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