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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: INVESTIGATING THE IMPACT OF STRESS ON FOODBORNE PATHOGEN COLONIZATION IN TURKEYS Title: Probiotics as Natural Solutions to Enteric Pathogens with Organic Production Implications in Poultry

Authors
item Donoghue, Ann
item Donoghue, D -

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: October 2, 2010
Publication Date: October 13, 2010
Citation: Donoghue, A.M., Donoghue, D.J. 2010. Probiotics as Natural Solutions to Enteric Pathogens with Organic Production Implications in Poultry. E.M. Binder, editors.World Nutrition Forum: the future of animal nutrition. Nottingham, England: Nottingham Press. p. 211-215.

Interpretive Summary: Organic poultry production has unique challenges; the lack of consistently effective treatments for enteric diseases can adversely influence bird health and the wholesomeness of poultry products. Drugs are not permitted in organic poultry production and mortality is often higher than conventional poultry operations. Necrotic enteritis, coccidiosis, and food safety concerns with Salmonella and Campylobacter are high priority areas for organic poultry producers and there is a critical need to develop strategies that promote gut health and limit disease. Probiotics and their antimicrobial components offer a strategy to reduce enteric pathogens that could be utilized by organic producers. We developed methods to pre-select microbes based on their ability to out compete food born pathogens in vitro. These cultures have demonstrated prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against Salmonella and to some extent Campylobacter in chickens and turkeys.

Technical Abstract: Organic poultry production has unique challenges; the lack of consistently effective treatments for enteric diseases can adversely influence bird health and the wholesomeness of poultry products. Drugs are not permitted in organic poultry production and mortality is often higher than conventional poultry operations. Necrotic enteritis, coccidiosis, and food safety concerns with Salmonella and Campylobacter are high priority areas for organic poultry producers and there is a critical need to develop strategies that promote gut health and limit disease. Probiotics and their antimicrobial components offer a strategy to reduce enteric pathogens that could be utilized by organic producers. The concept of accelerating the development of normal enteric microflora, thereby increasing the resistance of young poultry to infection, was first described by Nurmi and Rantala. These researchers collected microflora from mature chickens and inoculated newly hatched chicks, thereby significantly reducing Salmonella colonization. This strategy has been called competitive exclusion, the Nurmi effect, or probiotic supplementation, and numerous studies have demonstrated reduction in Salmonella colonization in poultry using mixed undefined enteric cultures. Although the results are promising against Salmonella they are still not consistent against Campylobacter Because of these inconsistencies researchers have made an effort to develop novel probiotics with efficacy against Campylobacter. Along with collaborators, we developed methods to pre-select microbes based on their ability to out compete food born pathogens in vitro. These cultures have demonstrated prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against Salmonella and to some extent Campylobacter in chickens and turkeys. In an effort to improve the efficacy of probiotic cultures for Campylobacter, new isolates have been collected and identified by our laboratory. Only isolates meeting the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status according to the Food and Drug Administration were considered for probiotic development. The 45 isolates meeting this criteria were co-incubated with Campylobacter, in vitro, to determine their ability to reduce Campylobacter growth. Of these 45 isolates, 11 isolates inhibited Campylobacter growth.

Last Modified: 10/20/2014
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