IDENTIFICATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND BIOLOGY OF EMERGING FOREIGN FUNGAL PLANT PATHOGENS
Location: Foreign Disease-Weed Science
Title: Susceptibility of select U.S. winter wheat cultivars to wheat blast (Magnaporthe grisea)
Submitted to: Phytopathology
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: June 1, 2011
Publication Date: August 8, 2011
Citation: Peterson, G.L., Pedley, K.F., Bockus, W.W., Stack, J.P., Cruz, C., Valent, B.S. 2011. Susceptibility of select U.S. winter wheat cultivars to wheat blast (Magnaporthe grisea). Phytopathology. 101:S141.
Wheat blast, caused by a pathotype of Magnaporthe oryzae, is an emerging disease in South America. Countries reporting the disease are Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina. Field losses of 30 to 100 percent have been observed under favorable environmental conditions. The establishment potential of wheat blast in other regions of the world has not been determined, but the spread of this seed transmissible disease is likely. In anticipation of its arrival in the U.S., studies were initiated to assess U.S. wheat cultivars for disease resistance. Reported here are preliminary results of a biological safety level-3 greenhouse screening of 200 U.S. winter wheat cultivars for head blast resistance using a single Brazilian isolate (T-25). For each cultivar, 7 to 20 spikes (GS-50) were spray-inoculated with a M. oryzae conidia suspension at a rate of 1X105 conidia per ml applied until run-off. Individual spikes were enclosed in small a plastic bag to maintain high humidity for 24 hours at 23-25 C. After 21 days, spikes were evaluated based in the number of infected florets per spike. Cultivars with less than 10 percent infection were retested. Test results showed a broad range of susceptibility. Cultivars ARS05-00443 (SRW), GA00067-8E35 (SRW) and GA011493-8E18 (SRW) averaged less than 4 percent infection, while KS0603A-57-1 (HRW), Jackpot (HRW), and CO050173 (HRW) averaged less that 10 percent. Identification of resistant germplasm will be essential for a U.S. disease recovery plan.