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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: INTERVENTIONS TO REDUCE EPIZOOTIC PATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN SWINE AND CATTLE

Location: Food and Feed Safety Research

Title: Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants

Authors
item Callaway, Todd
item Carroll, Jeffery
item Arthington, John -
item Edrington, Thomas
item Anderson, Robin
item Rossman, Michelle -
item Carr, Mandy -
item Genovese, Kenneth
item Ricke, Steve -
item Crandall, Phil -
item Nisbet, David

Submitted to: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 11, 2011
Publication Date: October 20, 2011
Repository URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/57240
Citation: Callaway, T.R., Carroll, J.A., Arthington, J.D., Edrington, T.S., Anderson, R.C., Rossman, M.L., Carr, M.A., Genovese, K.J., Ricke, S.C., Crandall, P., Nisbet, D.J. 2011. Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 8:1071-1075.

Interpretive Summary: Salmonella can live in the intestinal tract of food animals, where it poses a threat to human consumers of meat products. Orange peels are a by-product of juice production and have been fed to cattle as a least-cost ration ingredient for many years. Citrus peels contain essential oils that act as antimicrobials against bacteria. This study was designed to investigate if the feeding of citrus peel and pulp affected populations of Salmonella in experimentally infected sheep. Results indicate that feeding orange peel at levels up to 10% decreased Salmonella Typhimurium populations in the intestinal tract of sheep. Our results demonstrate that orange peel and pellets are "green" and low-cost products that can be used as a pre-harvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme.

Technical Abstract: Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be spread to humans directly and indirectly. Diet can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutritive value and is often included in cattle rations as a least-cost ration ingredient. Here we show that the inclusion of orange peel products reduced Salmonella Typhimurium populations in the gut of experimentally inoculated sheep. Sheep (n = 24) were fed a typical feedlot ration that was supplemented with a 50%/50% mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (DM basis) of 0, 10, or 20% orange product (OP) for 10 d prior to inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sheep were experimentally inoculated with 108 CFU Salmonella Typhimurium at t = 0 h, and fecal samples were collected every 12 h after inoculation. Sheep were humanely euthanized at 96 h after Salmonella inoculation. Upon necropsy, populations of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract; however, this reduction reached significant levels in the cecum (P < 0.05) of sheep fed 10% OP diets. Consumption of OP in the 20% diets decreased to approximately 7% of the ration, likely reflecting palatability issues and reducing the potential effects of OP feeding at this higher level. Our results demonstrate that orange peel and pellets are "green" and low-cost products that can be used as a pre-harvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme.

Last Modified: 8/22/2014