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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: GENETIC AND GENOMIC APPROACHES TO IMPROVE PEANUT AND CORN RESISTANCE TO DISEASE AND AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION

Location: Crop Protection and Management Research

Title: Advances in Genetics and Genomics for Sustainable Peanut Production

Authors
item Guo, Baozhu
item Chen, Charles
item Chu, Ye -
item Holbrook, C
item Ozias-Akins, Peggy -
item Stalker, H. Thomas -

Submitted to: Sustainable Agriculture
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: February 15, 2011
Publication Date: May 27, 2011
Citation: Guo, B., Chen, C.Y., Chu, Y., Holbrook Jr, C.C., Ozias-Akins, P., Stalker, H. 2011. Advances in Genetics and Genomics for Sustainable Peanut Production. Sustainable Agriculture. In: Benkeblia, N., editors. Sustainable Agriculture and New Biotechnologies. Boca Raton, FL:CRC Press. p. 341-368.

Interpretive Summary: Bio-technologies are contributing to rapid progress in improving crop productivity, quality, and resistance to pests and diseases. The advances in genetics and genomics are opening new frontiers in peanut breeding, including rapid and targeted advances in specific traits such as nematode resistance and high oleic acid content. Utilization of the collections of peanut germplasm has come a long way in breeding for new cultivars. Conventional breeding will continue to play an essential role in sustainable peanut production. The transformation technology has been developed in peanut. Nevertheless, much progress is still needed for peanut with regard to genome sequencing, genetic and physical mappings. Through new biotechnologies, enhancement of the genetic diversity, preservation, and utilization of these natural treasures of peanut germplasm collections will lead to improved sustainable peanut production and agriculture at large as well as improved human living standards, and improved food security and safety. In this review, only the most pertinent aspects of peanut genetics and genomics are discussed. Research efforts will be summarize in three areas including: (1) world-wide germplasm collection and utilization; (2) genetic breeding and cultivar development; and (3) molecular genetics and genomic biotechnology.

Technical Abstract: Plant breeding, genetics, and genomics have a critical role to play in sustainable agriculture. These technologies are contributing to rapid progress in improving crop productivity, quality, and resistance to pests and diseases. The advances in genetics and genomics are opening new frontiers in peanut breeding, including rapid and targeted advances in specific traits such as nematode resistance and high oleic acid content. Germplasm is the treasure of crop genetic resources and the three largest germplasm collections for peanut are maintained at ICRISAT in India, in the U.S., and in China. Utilization of the collections has come a long way, such as development of core and mini core collections for more efficient use in breeding for new cultivars. Conventional breeding will continue to play an essential role. The construction of genetic linkage maps for cultivated peanut continues to be an important research goal to facilitate QTL analysis and gene tagging for use in marker-assisted breeding. The transformation technology has been developed in peanut. Nevertheless, much progress is still needed for peanut with regard to genome sequencing, genetic and physical mappings, SNP discovery, and understanding of the influence of environmental factors, both abiotic and biotic, on gene expression in peanut. Through new biotechnologies, enhancement of the genetic diversity, preservation, and utilization of these natural treasures will lead to improved sustainable peanut production and agriculture at large as well as improved human living standards, and improved food security and safety. In this review, only the most pertinent aspects of peanut genetics and genomics are discussed. Research efforts will be summarize in three areas including: (1) world-wide germplasm collection and utilization; (2) genetic breeding and cultivar development; and (3) molecular genetics and genomic biotechnology.

Last Modified: 7/22/2014
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