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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CHEMISTRY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF INSECT BEHAVIOR, PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY Title: Identification and field evaluation of attractants for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus say

Authors
item Szendrei, Zsofia -
item Averill, Anne -
item Alborn, Hans
item Rodriquez Saona, Cesar -

Submitted to: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 15, 2011
Publication Date: March 29, 2011
Citation: Szendrei, Z., Averill, A., Alborn, H.T., Rodriquez Saona, C. 2011. Identification and field evaluation of attractants for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus say. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 37:387-397.

Interpretive Summary: There are more than 100 North American weevil species of the genus Anthonomus of which many are considered to be among the most destructive pests of cultivated plants. The cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus causes major economic losses annually to highbush blueberries and cranberries. Current monitoring methods for cranberry weevils are labor-intensive and inaccurate. In highbush blueberries, adult weevils are monitored using beating trays or by visually inspecting buds and flowers for injury; while in cranberries, adults are monitored using sweep nets. In pilot tests, yellow sticky traps baited with A. eugenii (pepper weevil) aggregation pheromone were highly attracted both sexes of weevils which indicated that these two Anthomonus species share common pheromone components. Headspace volatiles were collected from adult weevils feeding on blueberry or cranberry flower buds and analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three male-specific pheromone components were identified: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethyl-cyclohexylidene) ethanol (grandlure II), (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure III), and (E)-(3,3- dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure IV). A fourth component, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol), was emitted in similar quantities from males and females. In addition, 2 minor pheromone components were tentatively identified but not included in the pheromone test blend. Field experiments at blueberry and cranberry farms in New Jersey and Massachusetts were conducted with traps baited with A. musculus aggregation pheromone blend alone and combined with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, and to pepper and boll weevil pheromone baited traps. In both states and crops, traps baited with the cranberry weevil aggregation pheromone attracted the highest number of adults. Addition of the green leaf volatiles did not affect weevil attraction but skewed the sex ratio of the captured weevils towards females. Although the aggregation pheromone has not been finally formulated and the role of plant volatiles in host-pant location by A. musculus is still unclear, our studies provide the first identification of this weevils main aggregation pheromone components that can be used to monitor this pest in blueberry and cranberry pest management programs.

Technical Abstract: Studies were conducted to develop a semiochemically-based attractant for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus, a pest of blueberry and cranberry flower buds and flowers in the northeast United States. In previous studies, we showed that cinnamyl alcohol, the most abundant blueberry floral volatile, and the green leaf volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, emitted from both flowers and flower buds, elicit strong antennal responses from A. musculus. Here, we found that yellow sticky traps baited with cinnamyl alcohol and unbaited traps capture similar number of A. musculus adults; however, weevils were highly attracted to traps baited with the A. eugenii aggregation pheromone, indicating that these two Anthomonus species share common pheromone components. To identify the A. musculus aggregation pheromone, headspace volatiles were collected from adults feeding on blueberry or cranberry flower buds and analyzed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three male-specific compounds were identified: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethyl-cyclohexylidene) ethanol (grandlure II), (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure III), and (E)-(3,3- dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure IV). A fourth component, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol), was emitted in similar quantities from males and females. The emission rates of these volatiles were about 2.8, 1.8, 1.3, and 0.9 ng/adult/day, respectively. Following, field experiments were conducted to examine the attraction of A. musculus to traps baited with its aggregation pheromone alone and combined with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, and to A. eugenii and A. grandis pheromone baited traps, in blueberry and cranberry farms in New Jersey and Massachusetts. In both states and crops, traps baited with the A. musculus aggregation pheromone attracted the highest number of adults. Addition of the green leaf volatiles did not affect cranberry weevil attraction to its pheromone but skewed the sex ratio of the captured weevils towards females. Although the role of plant volatiles in host-pant location by A. musculus is still unclear, our studies provide the first identification of the main A. musculus aggregation pheromone components that can be used to monitor this pest in blueberry and cranberry pest management programs.

Last Modified: 12/20/2014
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