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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF CEREAL GERMPLASM FOR DISEASE RESISTANCE AND WINTER-HARDINESS

Location: Plant Science Research

Title: Trichothecene genotypes of gibberella zeae from winter wheat fields in the Eastern United States

Authors
item Schmale, D -
item Wood-Jones, A -
item COWGER, CHRISTINA
item Bergstrom, G -
item Arellano, C -

Submitted to: Plant Pathology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 24, 2011
Publication Date: March 4, 2011
Citation: Schmale, D.G., Wood-Jones, A.K., Cowger, C., Bergstrom, G.C., Arellano, C. 2011. Trichothecene genotypes of gibberella zeae from winter wheat fields in the Eastern United States. Plant Pathology. 60:909-917.

Interpretive Summary: Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum), is a devastating disease of wheat and barley worldwide. Grain infected with G. zeae may be contaminated with the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). Strains of G. zeae that produce DON may also produce one of two relatives of DON called 3ADON and 15ADON. In Canada, researchers have found that there are more 3ADON strains the farther east one samples. There have also been suggestions that 3ADON strains are more aggressive and produce more DON than 15ADON strains. In the Louisiana area, a high proportion of sampled strains have been determined to be NIV producers. NIV is not currently assayed at most grain intake points in the U.S. To determine the proportion of 3ADON and 15ADON strains, we sampled 998 isolates of G. zeae collected in 39 winter wheat fields in New York (NY), Pennsylvania (PA), Maryland (MD), Virginia (VA), Kentucky (KY), and North Carolina (NC). Ninety two percent of the isolates were DON/15ADON, 7% were DON/3ADON, and 1% was NIV. An increasing trend of DON/3ADON genotypes was observed from NC (south) to NY (north). Transport of spores in the atmosphere may favor a higher frequency of DON/3ADON genotypes in the northeastern U.S., near Canada, than in the mid-Atlantic states. Our discoveries of the NIV genotype in NY and NC indicate the need for more intensive sampling in the surrounding regions.

Technical Abstract: Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum), is a devastating disease of wheat and barley worldwide. Grain infected with G. zeae may be contaminated with the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). Strains of G. zeae that produce DON may also produce acetylated derivatives of DON: 3-acetyl-DON (3ADON) and 15-acetyl-DON (15ADON). Recent observations of gradients (clines) of DON/3ADON genotypes in Canada have raised questions about the distribution of G. zeae trichothecene genotypes in wheat fields in the eastern U.S. Tri3 and Tri12 genotypes were evaluated in 998 isolates of G. zeae collected in 39 winter wheat fields in New York (NY), Pennsylvania (PA), Maryland (MD), Virginia (VA), Kentucky (KY), and North Carolina (NC). Ninety two percent (919/998) of the isolates were DON/15ADON, 7% (69/998) were DON/3ADON, and 1% (10/998) was NIV. A phylogenetic analysis based on portions of three genes (PHO, RED, and URA) from 23 isolates revealed two species of Fusarium (F. graminearum sensu stricto and F. cerealis (synonym F. crookwellense)). An increasing trend of DON/3ADON genotypes was observed from NC (south) to NY (north). Punctuated episodes of atmospheric transport may favor a higher frequency of DON/3ADON genotypes in the northeastern U.S., near Canada, than in the mid-Atlantic states. Our discoveries of the NIV genotype in NY and NC indicate the need for more intensive sampling in the surrounding regions.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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