Location: Toxicology and Mycotoxin Research
Title: Stability of the Trichothecene, Deoxynivalenol in Processed Foods and Wheat Flake Cereal Authors
Submitted to: U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative Scab News
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: October 31, 2010
Publication Date: December 7, 2010
Citation: Voss, K.A., Snook, M.E. 2010. Stability of the Trichothecene, Deoxynivalenol in Processed Foods and Wheat Flake Cereal [abstract]. In: U.S. Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative Scab News. Proceedings of the 2010 National Fusarium Head Blight Forum, December 7-9, 2010, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. p. 122. Technical Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, principally F. graminearum and F. culmorum. These fungi are natural contaminants of wheat, barley and corn and, consequently, DON is found in cereal-based foods. The effect of thermal processing on DON is variable: some methods have been shown to reduce DON concentrations whereas others have had little effect. To determine if DON is stable during the production of selected foods, its concentrations in flour, wheat and processed food items prepared using commercially relevant conditions were compared using a gas-chromatographic method. The mean DON concentrations (n=9/item) in cookies, crackers, and pretzels were 61% (cookies) to 111% (pretzels) that of the unprocessed flour (100% = 0.46 ppm). Lower concentrations were found in donuts and bread. Their respective DON concentrations were 44% and 30%, respectively, that of flour. Mass balance estimations indicated that the total amount of DON (ppm flour equivalents) remaining in the flour-based products was as low as 50% (bread, 0.23 ppm flour equivalents) and as high as 120 % (donuts). This suggests that dilution of the flour by other ingredients significantly contributed to reducing DON concentrations in the bread and accounted for the entire reduction found in donuts. The mass balance results for the other flour products were in the range of 76% to 107%. The concentration of DON was higher in cereal flakes (0.55 ppm) than in the wheat (0.40 ppm) Likewise, the total amount of DON remaining in the finished flakes (mass balance result = 0.58 ppm) was also higher. In summary, DON concentrations were reduced greater than 50% in only in bread and donuts and evidence for "loss" of DON through decomposition, interaction with food matrix components or other mechanisms was obtained only for bread. The findings for this series of products are consistent with earlier reports and provide additional evidence that DON is generally stable during the preparation of heat processed foods made from flour or whole wheat.