Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: December 8, 2010
Publication Date: July 13, 2011
Citation: Vance, C.P. 2011. Phosphorus as a critical macronutrient. In: Hawkesford, M., Barraclough, P., editors. The Molecular and Physiological Basis of Nutrient Use Efficiency in Crops. West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd. p. 229-261. Technical Abstract: Phosphorus (P) is required for plant growth and development but its availability is frequently limiting. Plants have evolved numerous adaptive mechanisms for acclimation to P-deficiency. These mechanisms involve activation of metabolic, molecular, developmental, and regulatory processes which modify root architecture to increase soil volume exploration and recycling of internal P. Modification of root architecture is frequently accompanied by increased exudation of organic acids, protons, and enzymes to increase P availability. Recent advances in genomics and genetics suggest that plant acclimation to P-deficiency involves crosstalk between sugars and gene expression, including expression of miRNA399. The development of recombinant inbred lines and near inbred lines having P-tolerance coupled to next generation sequencing will lead to identification of genes regulating adaptation to P-stress.