ALASKA FISH PROCESSING BYPRODUCTSTitle: Physical and nutritional properties of baby food containing added red salmon oil (Oncorhynchus nerka) and microencapsulated red salmon oil
Submitted to: International Journal of Food Science and Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 7, 2011
Publication Date: October 30, 2011
Citation: Wan, Y., Sathivel, S., Stine, J.J., Bechtel, P.J. 2011. Physical and nutritional properties of baby food containing added red salmon oil (Oncorhynchus nerka) and microencapsulated red salmon oil. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 89(4):727-734..
Interpretive Summary: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a long chain omega-3 fatty acid, is an integral component of cell membranes in the developing brain and is one of the essential fatty acids for infant development. Attempts to incorporate fish oil into food formulations has at times been limited because of ‘fishy’ flavors and odors. Microencapsulation of the fish oil can provide benefits such as providing an oxygen barrier resulting in an extended shelf life and a taste profile barrier eliminating fish oil taste and odor. The objectives of the study were to: 1) purify red salmon oil using adsorption technology; 2) characterize the purified red salmon oil; and 3) evaluate and compare the chemical and physical properties of baby food containing added red salmon oil and added microencapsulated red salmon fish oil. Purification using adsorption technology was effective in reducing free fatty acids of the unpurified salmon oil and also resulted in clear reddish salmon oil with a reduced moisture content. Purification of the salmon oil did not alter the fatty acid profile. When the purified salmon oil was microencapsulated and added to baby food the content of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA, increase up to three fold. Color of the baby food was altered by adding salmon oil. Encapsulated salmon oil added to baby food resulted in increasing total percent omega-3 fatty acids while maintaining many of the desirable attributes of the product.
Unpurified red salmon oil (UPSO) was purified (PSO) using chitosan. Both unpurified and purified oils were evaluated for peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA), fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), moisture, and color. An emulsion system containing PSO (EPSO) was prepared: system was analyzed for color, rheological properties and microstructure before spray drying to produce microencapsulated PSO (MPSO). MPSO was analyzed for moisture, water activity, bulk density, color and FAME composition. PSO or MPSO was added to a commercial baby-food product (CB). All the baby-food samples were compared for PV, FFAs, FAME, and color. Triplicate experiments were conducted and data were statistically analyzed (a=0.05). PSO had higher total omega-3, total monounsaturated, DHA, and EPA contents than MPSO. EPSO exhibited viscoelastic characteristic and the droplet size of EPSO was 1-9 µm. Total omega-3 and total monounsaturated contents of the MPSO were lower than that of PSO. All baby-food samples with added fish oils had similar color. DHA and EPA content of baby food were increased over three fold by adding PSO and/ or MPSO. MPSO can be added to CB resulting in increasing total percent omega-3 fatty acids while maintaining the desirable attributes of the CB.