Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: September 17, 2010
Publication Date: January 24, 2011
Citation: Mangan, R.L., Tarshis Moreno, A.M. 2011. Designing practical laboratory procedures for determining host status of commodities to fruit flies using various Anastrepha species as examples. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, Sept. 29 - Oct. 01, 2010, Valencia, Spain. p. 78.
A critical component of assessing pest introductions and requirement for quarantines in fresh fruits/vegetables is the host status that determines risk of pest transport and introduction. Here, we present a summary of laboratory procedures that address host evaluation and illustrate the procedure with summaries of laboratory experiments with the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, the West Indian fruit fly, A. obliqua (Macquart), and the Sapote fly, A. serpentine (Weidemann), in tests with various citrus species and cultivars. Based on earlier tests, we classified host status as either natural hosts or conditional hosts, and fruit fly species were classified as natural pests or conditional pests. Experiments tested survival and development of eggs and larvae of the fruit flies to compare tissue specific survival of the developmental stages of these species in natural and conditional citrus hosts and determine the tissue specific survival rates related to the maturity of the fruit. In all tests most mortality occurred during the first week after oviposition for eggs and first stage larvae in the albedo. The Mexican and sapote fruit flies oviposited into the albedo, but West Indian fruit fly eggs were found mostly in the flavedo among the oil glands. Results showed large differences among the species for factors such as fruit maturity and senescence affecting mortality in the albedo but mortality was very low in larvae reaching the pulp for any of the species. The methods described here allowed identification of factors that affect host status for the 3 Anastrepha species of high economic importance in North America. The method could be tested under laboratory conditions during a single season. The Mexican fruit fly which is an economic pest on most citrus (but not Eureka lemons) was most sensitive to fruit maturity. Fly trapping triggers for quarantines in areas using a systems approach to meet requirements could be adjusted based on these factors for conditional hosts.