COUNTERMEASURES TO PREVENT AND CONTROL TUBERCULOSIS IN CATTLE AND WILDLIFE RESERVOIRS
Location: Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research Unit
Title: Tuberculosis immunity: Opportunities from studies with cattle
Submitted to: Clinical and Developmental Immunology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 11, 2010
Publication Date: December 1, 2010
Citation: Waters, W.R., Palmer, M.V., Thacker, T.C., Davis, W.C., Sreevatsan, S., Coussens, P., Meade, K.G., Hope, J.C., Estes, D.M. 2010. Tuberculosis immunity: Opportunities from studies with cattle. Clinical and Developmental Immunology. 2011:01-11.
Interpretive Summary: Despite highly successful eradication efforts in several countries, tuberculosis of cattle remains a serious health concern worldwide. Outbreaks in Michigan, California, and Minnesota continue and new cases have been detected in Colorado, South Dakota, Nebraska, Texas, and Indiana; demonstrating that the disease is far from eliminated from the United States. This review article provides an overview of research on bovine tuberculosis immunology, demonstrating the potential use of the calf model to improve our understanding of tuberculosis in cattle and humans. Additionally, details about the immune response of cattle to tuberculosis vaccines are described. Knowledge presented in this article will be useful for the dissemination of information critical for the advancement of new strategies to be used in the United States and elsewhere for tuberculosis control.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis are closely related (>99% genetic identity), inducing similar host responses and disease expression upon infection. There is a rich history of co-discovery in the development of control measures applicable to both human and bovine tuberculosis (TB) including skin-testing procedures, BCG vaccination, and interferon-gamma release assays. The calf TB infection model offers several opportunities to further our understanding of TB immunopathogenesis. Recent observations include: correlation of central memory immune responses with TB vaccine efficacy, association of SIRP alpha + cells in ESAT-6:CFP10-elicited multinucleate giant cell formation, early gamma delta T cell responses to TB, anti-mycobacterial activity of memory CD4+ T cells via granulysin production, association of specific antibody with antigen burden, and suppression of innate immune gene expression in infected animals. Partnerships pairing researchers with veterinary and medical perspectives should provide mutual benefit to TB research.