DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED RISK MODEL FOR FOODBORNE ZOONOTIC PARASITES IN SWINE
Title: Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in patients with vision and hearing impairments, cancer, HIV, or undergoing hemodialysis in Durango, Mexico
| Alvarado-Esquivel, C. - |
| Liesenfeld, O. - |
| Torres-Castorena, A. - |
| Estrada-Martínez, S. - |
| Urbina-Álvarez, J. - |
| Ramos-De La Rocha, M. - |
| Márquez-Conde, J. - |
Submitted to: Journal of Parasitology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 1, 2010
Publication Date: October 1, 2010
Citation: Alvarado-Esquivel, C., Liesenfeld, O., Torres-Castorena, A., Estrada-Martínez, S., Urbina-Álvarez, J.D., Ramos-De La Rocha, M., Márquez-Conde, J.A., Dubey, J.P. 2010. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in patients with vision and hearing impairments, cancer, HIV, or undergoing hemodialysis in Durango, Mexico. Journal of Parasitology. 96:505-506.
Interpretive Summary: Toxoplasma gondii is a single-celled parasite of all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. It causes mental retardation and loss of vision in children, and abortion in livestock. Cats are the main reservoir of T. gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the resistant stage (oocyst) of the parasite in the feces. Humans become infected by eating undercooked meat from infected animals and food and water contaminated with oocysts.In the present study scientists document seroprevalences of Toxoplasma in patients in Durango, Mexicowith different symptoms. The results will be of interest to biologists, parasitologists, and veterinarians.
Toxoplasma gondii infection may cause a variety of symptoms involving virtually all organs. Little is known of the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in different patient groups in Mexico. We sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated epidemiological characteristics in 472 patients in Durango, Mexico. Participants were tested for T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. In addition, socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics from each participant were obtained. Seroprevalences of T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 7 (8.2%) of 85 patients with hearing impairment, 5 (10%) of 50 patients with hemodialysis, 28 (12%) of 234 patients with visual impairment, and 7 (6.8%) of 103 at risk of immunosuppression. In total, 47 (10%) of 472 subjects had IgG T. gondii antibodies; 6 (1.3%) of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Patients born in Durango State had a significantly lower prevalence of T. gondii infection than patients born in other Mexican States (9% vs 21.4%, respectively; p<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was significantly associated with consumption of undercooked meat (adjusted OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.18-7.35) or raw cow milk (adjusted OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.28-4.96), presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.06-3.78), raising animals (adjusted OR = 2.44; 95% CI: 1.06-5.63), or eating out of home (adjusted OR = 2.70; 95% CI: 1.03-7.11). In the group of patients with visual impairment, those with reflexes impairment had a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection that those with normal reflexes (19% vs. 9.4% respectively: p=0.04). Results of the present study are the first step in the design of prevention programs to avoid the sequelae of toxoplasmosis.