CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS OF COTTON TEXTILES
Location: Cotton Chemistry and Utilization Research
Title: Flame retardant properties of triazine phosphonates derivative with cotton fabric
Submitted to: Fibers and Polymers
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 4, 2010
Publication Date: May 5, 2011
Citation: Chang, S., Condon, B.D., Graves, E.E., Uchimiya, S.M., Fortier, C.A., Easson, M.W., Wakelyn, P. 2011. Flame retardant properties of triazine phosphonates derivative with cotton fabric. Fibers and Polymers. 12(3):334-339.
Interpretive Summary: This research has been shown that intumescent twill fabrics based on renewable recourses can be used to bring flame retardancy to woven cotton. Flame retardant properties of cotton twill fabrics coated with nitrogen-phosphorus containing triazine compound have been evaluated. Nitrogen-phosphorus containing triazine flame retardant compound have multifunctional advantages: 1) low toxicity during combustion, 2) low smoke development in fire accidents, 3) environmentally friendly, 4) comparatively cheap starting material, 5) and easy to synthesize. The 45 degree angle and vertical flame spread flammability tests have shown no combustion when flame retardant materials are coated on cotton twill fabric by traditional pad-dry-cure methods. Self-extinguishable cotton materials were obtained. It can be applied to all kinds of textile material to improve their flame retardant properties. This success of work will benefit scientists involved in generating new uses for flame retardant cotton products as well as manufacturers of woven and nonwoven cotton products in new worldwide market.
The flame retardant behavior of a cotton fabric treated with phosphorus-nitrogen containing triazine compound was evaluated. It was found that cyanuric chloride (2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine) is an excellent starting material for the preparation of phosphonates flame retardants that interacts well with cotton to improve flame resistance (FR) performance. Tetraethyl 6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diyldiphosphonate (TECTDP) has been prepared by a simple one-step reaction in high yield (98.0%). Cotton fabrics treated with TECTDP result in covalent bond formation between TECTDP and hydroxyl groups in cotton fabrics. This FR system provides in an efficient flame retardant for cotton textiles at low cost to meet government mandates. In this study, the FR material was synthesized and characterized by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and LC-MS spectroscopy. The chemical structure of cotton twill fabric treated with TECTDP by pad-dry-cure method was analyzed by FT-MIR and SEM. Furthermore, the thermal and flammability properties were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), limiting oxygen index (LOI, ASTM D-2863-09), and a vertical flame test (ASTM D-6413-08).