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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONSERVATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND EVALUATION OF CROP GENETIC RESOURCES AND ASSOCIATED INFORMATION

Location: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit

Title: Oil content and fatty acid composition variability in wild peanut species

Authors
item Wang, Ming
item Barkley, Noelle
item Chinnan, Manjeet -
item Stalker, Tom -
item Pittman, Roy

Submitted to: Plant Genetic Resources
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 26, 2010
Publication Date: September 14, 2010
Repository URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/49831
Citation: Wang, M.L., Barkley, N.L., Chinnan, M., Stalker, T., Pittman, R.N. 2010. Oil content and fatty acid composition variability in wild peanut species. Plant Genetic Resources. 8:232-234.

Interpretive Summary: Wild peanut species are useful genetic resources for improving the levels of disease/pest resistance and enhancing the quality of seed composition by cross-species hybridization. The variation in oil content and fatty acid composition of wild peanut species in the USDA germplasm collection is unknown. Seeds available from 39 wild species (plus a cultivated peanut) were requested from the U.S. peanut germplasm collection. Oil content was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance, fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography, and the D150N functional mutation for the FAD2A gene was screened by real-time PCR. Significant variability in oil content (41.7- 61.3%) was identified among wild peanut species. Arachis magna contained a significantly more oil (61%) than cultivated peanut (56%). There was no functional mutation identified within the FAD2A gene target and no wild species with a high ratio of oleic acid to linoleic acid (O/L). The results from gas chromatography (GC) and real-time PCR analysis were consistent. However, A. sylvestris contained a significantly higher amount (22%) of long-chain fatty acid than cultivated peanut (4%). Thus, A. magna and A. sylvestris may be good breeding materials to use for increasing oil content or long-chain fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts in breeding programs.

Technical Abstract: Wild peanut species are useful genetic resources for improving the levels of disease/pest resistance and enhancing the quality of seed composition by interspecific hybridization. The variation in oil content and fatty acid composition of wild peanut species in the USDA germplasm collection is unknown. Seeds available from 39 wild species (plus a cultivated peanut) were requested from the U.S. peanut germplasm collection. Oil content was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance, fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography, and the D150N functional mutation for the FAD2A gene was screened by real-time PCR. Significant variability in oil content (41.7- 61.3%) was identified among wild peanut species. Arachis magna contained a significantly more oil (61%) than cultivated peanut (56%). There was no functional mutation identified within the FAD2A gene target and no wild species with a high ratio of oleic acid to linoleic acid (O/L). The results from GC and real-time PCR analysis were consistent. However, A. sylvestris contained a significantly higher amount (22%) of long-chain fatty acid than cultivated peanut (4%). Thus, A. magna and A. sylvestris may be good breeding materials to use for increasing oil content or long-chain fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts in breeding programs.

Last Modified: 4/23/2014