CONSERVATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH FOR IMPROVING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND PRODUCER PROFITABILITY
Location: National Soil Dynamics Laboratory
Title: Effects of various residue management systems on cotton establishment and yield in high-residue
Submitted to: ASABE Annual International Meeting
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: June 20, 2010
Publication Date: June 20, 2010
Citation: Kornecki, T.S., Price, A.J., Arriaga, F.J., Balkcom, K.S. 2010. Effects of various residue management systems on cotton establishment and yield in high-residue. In: Proceedings of the ASABE Annual International Meeting, June 20-23, 2010, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Paper No. 1009866. CDROM.
Interpretive Summary: Cover crops provide multiple benefits in no-till systems, resulting in adaptation or transition to some form of conservation tillage by many cotton producers in the Southeast. Because of the cost associated with purchasing no-till equipment, producers first utilize their conventional tillage, i.e., wide strip subsoilers and conventional planters while they purchase relatively inexpensive add-on attachment tools such as row cleaners, to manage large amounts of cover crop residue. On the other hand, experienced no-till cotton producers utilize rollers to flatten cover crops and no-till planters to manage cover crop residue while planting. This research evaluated the optimal choice/combination of the equipment that maximizes benefits in high-residue covers. Results have shown that
in 2007 rolled residue helped to achieve higher cotton stands and higher cotton seed yield compared to non-rolled standing rye. Rolled rye residue, narrow strip subsoiling, and row cleaners attached to both subsoiler and planter produced the highest cotton yield. In contrast, non-rolled rye residue, wide strip subsoiling and row cleaners removed from both subsoiler and the planter resulted in the lowest cotton yield. The strip width (i.e., wide v/s narrow) did not have effects either on cotton stand or yield. In 2008 there was no difference in cotton stand for rolled and non-rolled rye residue due to unusually low rye biomass due to drought conditions. Different treatment combinations had no effect on the cotton stand. In 2008, non-rolled residue and row cleaners attached only to the subsoiler resulted in the highest cotton yield both for narrow and wide strips. When biomass of the rye cover crop was unusually low (56% less than in 2007), rolling had no effect on cotton stands and cotton yields.
A field experiment was conducted in 2007 and 2008 in central Alabama to evaluate the effects of cover crop termination, strip tillage width, and row cleaners attached either to the tillage implement or planting units, on cotton stand and yield. Treatments included roller (present or absent) with supplemental glyphosate application, in-row subsoiler (wide and narrow strips), and row-cleaners attached either to subsoiler, planter or both. In both years rye was terminated in mid-April followed by tillage treatments. Cotton was planted three weeks after treatments application. In 2007, higher cotton stands were associated with rolled rye residue (137,134 plants/ha) v/s non-rolled rye (115,641 plants/ha). On average, significantly higher cotton seed yield was found for rolled rye (4,540 kg/ha compared to non-rolled rye (4,332 kg/ha). The highest cotton seed yield (4,933 kg/ha) was recorded for rolled rye under narrow strip tillage with row cleaners attached to both subsoiler and planter. The lowest cotton yield (3,913 kg/ha) was associated with non-rolled residue under narrow strip tillage with row cleaners present on both subsoiler and planter. In 2008, no difference was found in the cotton stand for rolled (108,375 plants/ha) or non-rolled rye (107,719 plants/ha). Cotton seed yield in 2008 was higher than in 2007 due to a severe drought in Alabama during 2007. In 2008, slightly higher cotton yield was reported for non-rolled rye (5,658 kg/ha) v/s rolled rye (5,419 kg/ha). The non-rolled rye, narrow strip subsoiling and row cleaners on subsoiler produced the highest cotton yield (5,812 kg/ha) compared with the lowest (5,171 kg/ha) by rolled rye, narrow strip and row cleaners on the planter. In both years the width of the tillage strip did not affect cotton stand or cotton seed yield.