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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MANAGERIAL AND NUTRITIONAL STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY OF HEAVY BROILER CHICKENS

Location: Poultry Research

Title: Effects of single and combined Mycoplasma gallisepticums vaccinations on blood electrolytes and acid-base balance in commercial egg-laying hens

Authors
item OLANREWAJU, HAMMED
item COLLIER, STEPHANIE
item BRANTON, SCOTT

Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 16, 2010
Publication Date: February 5, 2011
Citation: Olanrewaju, H.A., Collier, S.D., Branton, S.L. 2011. Effects of single and combined Mycoplasma gallisepticums vaccinations on blood electrolytes and acid-base balance in commercial egg-laying hens. Poultry Science. 90:358-363.

Interpretive Summary: In the United States alone, significant economic losses from M. gallisepticum infections have exceeded $150 million annually due to reduced egg production and hatchability, as well as downgrading of carcasses. Three commercial vaccines are available to the poultry industry’s layer sector to combat these losses; none is ideal and each has specific strengths and weaknesses. Previous study on F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculated layers from our laboratory showed a significant increase in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) which is generally associated with an oxygen-dependent improvement in tissue oxygenation to improve the layer chicken’s ability to withstand the harmful effects of stressors on their performance and well-being. In the current study, we evaluated whether killed vaccine (Bacterin) and live vaccine (TS-11) treatment combination could enhance the arterial pO2 levels in layer chickens. Results of this study show that TS-11 vaccinated chickens had significantly (P = 0.05) higher blood pO2 and significantly (P = 0.05) lower partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) when compared with control and combined MG vaccinated groups. However, no significant differences were observed between Bacterin and TS-11 treatment groups in reference to blood pO2. Hematocrit and blood concentrations of hemoglobin were not statistically affected among treatments, but were slightly higher in TS-11 treatment group. There was a significant (P = 0.05) treatments effect on blood concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, and anion, but no significant effect on glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and osmolality. These data suggest that inoculation of layers with TS-11 was more effective in elevating pO2, than inoculation with TS-11 + Bacterin combined. Our results provide a basis for further exploration of a target antibody concentration strategy and for further exploration of the physiological involvement of acid-base balance and electrolytes in MG-vaccinated layers.

Technical Abstract: In a previous study, it was shown to occur in response to an F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) inoculation layers from our laboratory a significant increase in arterial partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), which is generally associated with an oxygen-dependent improvement in tissue oxygenation to improve the layer chicken’s ability to withstand the harmful effects of stressors on their performance and well-being. The aim of this study was to determine whether a killed (Bacterin) and live TS-11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (TS-11-strain MG) vaccine treatment combination could enhance the arterial pO2 levels in layer chickens. The experiment was conducted in 2 trials and arranged in a completely randomized experimental design with 4 treatments. The treatments consisted of a control M. gallisepticum (MG-clean), Bacterin, TS-11-MG, and Bacterin + TS-11-MG combined, with all treatments receiving the R low strain of MG at 30 week of age (WOA). In each of the 2 trials, 160 1-d-old MG-free pullets were raised to 10 WOA and were transported to a poultry disease isolation facility. Sixteen isolation units were divided into 4 treatment groups and each of the 4 treatment groups had 4 replication units with 10 birds/unit (40 birds/treatment). Venous blood samples were collected at the termination of the study. TS-11-MG vaccinated chickens had a significantly (P = 0.05) higher blood pO2 and a significantly (P = 0.05) lower partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) when compared with control and combined MG vaccinated groups. However, no significant blood pO2 differences were observed between Bacterin and TS-11-MG treatment groups. Hematocrit and blood concentrations of hemoglobin were not statistically different among treatments, but were numerically higher in the TS-11-MG treatment group. There was a significant (P = 0.05) treatment effect on blood concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, and anion, but no significant effect on glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, or osmolality. These data suggest that the inoculation of layers with TS-11-MG was more effective in elevating pO2, than inoculation with TS-11-MG + Bacterin combined.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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