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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: QUALITY OF HARD SPRING AND DURUM WHEAT

Location: Cereal Crops Research

Title: Comparison Between Potassium Bromate and Ozone as Flour Oxidants in Breadmaking

Authors
item Sandhu, Harkanwal -
item Manthey, Frank -
item Simsek, Senay -
item Ohm, Jae-Bom

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 30, 2010
Publication Date: February 16, 2011
Citation: Sandhu, H., Manthey, F.A., Simsek, S., Ohm, J. 2011. Comparison Between Potassium Bromate and Ozone as Flour Oxidants in Breadmaking. Cereal Chemistry. 88(1):103–108.

Interpretive Summary: The objective of this research was to compare the efficacy of potassium bromate with that of ozone treatment of flour in improvement of breadmaking. In the first experiment, flour was treated with ozone gas at 1,500 ppm for 2, 4.5, 9, and 18 min. In the second experiment, flour which was fully treated with ozone gas at 1,500 ppm for 45 min was blended with control flour at concentrations from 10 to 30% (w/w). Ozone gas treatment of flour increased flour whiteness and decreased yellowness. Ozone gas treatment of flour changed molecule size distribution of native proteins in flour. Polymeric proteins which were insoluble in sodium dodecyl sulfate buffer solution were increased by ozone gas treatment of flour. Bread which was made using flour treated for 2 to 4.5 min with ozone gas showed larger specific loaf volume than that of untreated flour. Bread that was made from flour blended with fully ozonated flour at 5 and 10% (w/w) was not significantly different for specific volume when compared with bread made with flour containing potassium bromate. Bread made from flour treated with ozone for 2, 4.5 and 9 min had better crumb characteristics with larger loaf volumes than control flour. Results indicate that ozone treatment of flour could eliminate the need for potassium bromate in bread making.

Technical Abstract: The objective of this research was to compare the efficacy of potassium bromate with that of ozone treatment in wheat flour oxidation for breadmaking. In the first experiment, flour was treated with ozone at 1,500 ppm for 2, 4.5, 9, and 18 min. In the second experiment, flour was fully treated with ozone at 1,500 ppm for 45 min and then blended with control flour at concentrations from 10 to 30% (w/w). Flour became whiter and less yellow as ozonation time increased when compared to control flour. Size exclusion HPLC detected an increase in sodium dodecyl sulfate buffer insoluble polymeric proteins in flour exposed to ozone. Bread made from flour treated with ozone for 2 to 4.5 min significantly increased specific loaf volume and bread that was made from flour blended with fully ozonated flour at 5 and 10% (w/w) was not significantly different for specific volume when compared with bread made with flour containing potassium bromate. Bread made from flour treated with ozone for 2, 4.5 and 9 min had greater number of cells in crumb with larger loaf volumes than control flour. Results indicate that ozone treatment of flour could eliminate the need for potassium bromate in bread making.

Last Modified: 4/23/2014
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