Location: Toxicology and Mycotoxin Research
Title: Phylogenetic and biological investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi Authors
Submitted to: Mycological Society of America
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: May 28, 2010
Publication Date: June 28, 2010
Citation: Glenn, A.E., Boukouvala, S. 2010. Phylogenetic and biological investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi. Joint Meeting of the Mycological Society of America and of the International Symposium on Fungal Endophytes of Grasses. Jun 28-Jul 2, 2010. Lexington, KY. Technical Abstract: Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated. The NAT1 (FDB2) gene of Fusarium verticillioides was the first NAT cloned and characterized from fungi and is essential for the metabolism of antimicrobial compounds (benzoxazolinones) produced by cereals (maize, wheat, and rye) and some wild grasses. We report a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis employing an exhaustive dataset of homologous NAT amino acid sequences recovered through inspection of 146 fungal genomes. The NATs of fungi are distinctly monophyletic with the possible exception of Malassezia globosa, a commensal basidiomycete yeast commonly found on human scalps. M. globosa NAT1 clustered among beta-proteobacteria in an analysis of NATs across kingdoms. Only five basidiomycetes were found to possess NATs, whereas 39 ascomycetes possessed orthologs. The latter belonged exclusively to the Pezizomycotina. Animal and human pathogens of the Onygenales typically possessed only one NAT, with the exception of Microsporum gypseum possessing a second NAT that clustered with NAT2 of the mycoparasite Trichoderma virens. Ascomycetes infecting plants generally possessed multiple NATs. The F. verticillioides NAT1 clade included orthologs from other maize and wheat pathogens (e.g., Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Gibberella zeae, and Aspergillus flavus), suggesting an association between NAT metabolic capacity and affinity for hosts that produce benzoxazolinone defense compounds. Future studies will investigate more closely this possible association and its implications on agricultural management practices.