Submitted to: Meeting Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: June 15, 2010
Publication Date: September 15, 2010
Citation: Jauhar, P.P. 2010. Study of Chromosomes: Their Vital Importance in Agriculture, Biology, and Medicine. Meeting Proceedings. pg. 23-29. Technical Abstract: Research on chromosomes has enriched the disciplines of genetics, plant breeding, biology, and medicine, which, in turn, have contributed to human welfare. Although the foundation of genetics occurred in 1865, long before the discovery of chromosomes, their subsequent discovery put genetics on a sound footing. The elucidation of parallelism between chromosome behaviour during the course of meiosis and genes during the course of breeding explained the laws of genetics, and then led to an alliance between cytology and genetics resulting in the birth of cytogenetics, during the first decade of the twentieth century. The advances in genetics and cytogenetics accelerated the process of crop improvement, and resulted in the development of improved cereal cultivars that led to the Green Revolution. Cytogenetic manipulation of pairing among chromosomes of parental species facilitated interspecific gene transfers. The discovery of chromosome number in humans led to the elucidation of the causes of physical and mental abnormalities, causes of miscarriage in pregnant women, and the bases of some forms of cancer. The study of various aspects of chromosomes has positively impacted human welfare.