|Cefalu, William -|
Submitted to: Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: June 24, 2010
Publication Date: May 1, 2011
Citation: Anderson, R.A., Cefalu, W.T. 2011. Chromium. In: Coates, P.M., Betz, J.M., Blackman, M.R., Cragg, G.M., Levine, M., Moss, J., and White, J.D., editors. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements, 2nd Edition, New York, N.Y.: Marcel Dekker, p. 148-156. Technical Abstract: The effects of chromium (Cr) on glucose and insulin metabolism are well documented. Normal dietary intake of Cr appears to be suboptimal because several studies have reported beneficial effects of Cr in people with elevated blood glucose or type 2 diabetes eating conventional diets. Stresses that alter blood glucose often lead to increased mobilization of Cr that is subsequently lost from the body via the urine. The mechanism of action of Cr is largely through improvements in insulin sensitivity. Chromium makes insulin more effective and in the presence of Cr in a useable form, lower levels of insulin are required. There is no established upper limit for the supplemental Cr as it has very low toxicity and there have been no documented negative side effects in any of the more than 35 clinical studies. Number of subjects per study ranged from less than 10 to more than 800.