IMPROVING THE SENSORY QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE OF FRESH-CUT FRUIT PRODUCTS
Location: Food Processing and Sensory Quality Research
Title: Impact of cooking formulation on descriptive flavor and ORAC values of whole grain colored rice.
Submitted to: National Meeting of Institute of Food Technologists/Food Expo
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: March 5, 2010
Publication Date: July 19, 2010
Citation: Bett Garber, K.L., Watson, M.A., Lea, J.M., Champagne, E.T. 2010. Impact of cooking formulation on descriptive flavor and ORAC values of whole grain colored rice. National Meeting of Institute of Food Technologists/Food Expo. Poster.
Whole grain rice is high in healthful polyphenols, which can impart less desirable flavors, such as, bitterness and astringency. Other flavors may be associated with polyphenols. Rice is prepared with water and sometimes salt and/or oil are added to the cooking water; otherwise, there is little opportunity to influence the flavor of steamed rice. The addition of salt, oil, or salt/oil during cooking can impact the flavor and antioxidant capacity of brown, red, and black rice. Three commercial rice samples were cooked in rice cookers using rice: water ratios (w/w) 1:1.97 (black), 1:2.25 (red) and 1:2.6 (brown). Salt (0.5%) and/or oil (0.525%v/w) were added to the cooking water. Flavor was evaluated by descriptive flavor analysis, and antioxidant capacity was measured by oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORACFL) method. Black rice was higher in oily and darkberry flavors, red rice was higher in bran/hay/straw, cardboard/musty and earthy flavor; while brown rice was higher in grainy/starchy, cooked cereal, and dairy flavors. Brown rice was much less bitter and astringent than the black and red rice. The addition of salt to the rice significantly reduced bitterness and salt/oil reduced water-like/metallic. Salt markedly increased corn/popcorn, beany, and brothy/meaty flavors; and markedly reduced the cardboard/musty, sweet and sour flavors. Oil markedly reduced grainy/starchy, cooked cereal flavors; and markedly increased rancid/oxidized flavor. Additions of salt and salt/oil slightly reduced the astringent taste, but not significantly. Addition of salt, oil or salt/oil, had no effect on the hydrophilic ORAC in red or brown rice. Salt significantly increased the ORAC in black rice. ORAC values for black rice were more than twice of that for brown and red. Black and red rice have different flavors than brown rice. Addition of oil and/or salt can slightly modify the flavors associated with these darker rice cultivars without reducing ORAC.