APPLICATION OF BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES TO THE DIAGNOSIS AND CONTROL OF AVIAN INFLUENZA AND OTHER EMERGING POULTRY PATHOGENS
Location: Exotic and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research Unit
Title: Research update on avian influenza viruses and H1N1 influenza virus in poultry
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: December 7, 2009
Publication Date: December 8, 2009
Citation: Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Suarez, D.L., Swayne, D.E., Kapczynski, D.R., Spackman, E. 2009. Research update on avian influenza viruses and H1N1 influenza virus in poultry [abstract]. 44th United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources, November 30-December 5, 2009, Tsukuba, Japan. p. 28.
Avian influenza (AI) remains an economic threat to commercial poultry throughout the world by negatively impacting animal health and trade. Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory conducts research on many areas related to AI including pathogenesis and transmission studies, use of vaccination, virus molecular characterization, and development of diagnostic tests. Vaccination with high quality efficacious vaccines that are properly delivered can contribute to the control of avian AI outbreaks when used as part of a comprehensive control program that includes enhanced biosecurity, increased surveillance, education, and elimination of infected poultry. Research on vaccine efficacy performed in chickens, ducks and quail using recent H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza isolates showed that commonly used killed commercially available influenza vaccines did not provide complete protection from some of the viruses tested. In April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A emerged causing respiratory disease in humans. The presence of avian and swine influenza virus genes in the 2009 novel H1N1 virus raises the potential for infection in poultry following exposure to infected humans or swine. Infectivity and transmissibility of the 2009 novel H1N1 virus was studied in four poultry species, and it was found that it could subclinically infect quail but not chickens, ducks or turkeys. In addition new real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) diagnostic tests for novel H1N1 for the veterinary field, including both poultry and swine, were developed. In August 2009, the H1N1 influenza virus was found in turkeys breeders in two farms in Chile, and in October 2009, in turkeys in Canada, underlining the need for further studies on pathogenicity of H1N1 in poultry species.