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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Effect of seasonal variation on quality of ‘Valencia’ orange

Authors
item Bai, Jinhe
item Baldwin, Elizabeth
item Plotto, Anne
item Manthey, John
item McCollum, Thomas
item Irey, Mike -
item Luzio, Gary

Submitted to: Subtropical Technology Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: October 18, 2009
Publication Date: October 22, 2009
Citation: Bai, J., Baldwin, E., Plotto, A., Manthey, J., Mccollum, T., Irey, M., Luzio, G. 2009. Effect of seasonal variation on quality of ‘Valencia’ orange. Subtropical Technology Conference Proceedings. 60:18-19.

Technical Abstract: ‘Valencia’ oranges were harvested from February to June, 2007, and the effect of harvest time on fruit and juice quality was investigated. After reaching a peak in peel color in March, peel regreening occurred and juice content decreased. Soluble solids content (SSC) remained constant at 10.3-11.0% regardless of harvest time. However, juice from late harvested fruit had much lower titratable acidity (TA) content. Thus, SSC/TA ratio steadily increased from 10.4 in February to 25.5 in June harvested fruit. When individual sugars and acids were analyzed, it was found that the ratio increased due to a decrease in citric acid and an increase of sucrose over the season. Pectin content in juice increased with delayed harvest time, possibly due to a softening of albedo and membrane tissues that resulted in small amounts of this materials entering the juise during processing. Ascorbic acid content decreased throughout the harvest season. Phenolic hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs), an unidentified alkaloid, flavonoids including narirutin (NR), 6,8-di-C-glucosyl apigenin (DCGA) and narirutin-4’-glucoside (NRG), as well as sesquiterpenoid limonoids including limonin glucoside (LG), nomilin glucoside (NG), nomilinic acid glucoside (NAG), limonin (L) and nomilin (N) aglycones were measured over the season. Contents of HCAs decreased continually until May then increased in June, and alkaloid continually increased during the entire harvest season. Contents of flavonoid decreased or remained constant. Limonoids, including L and N, the major bitterness contributors decreased over the season except LG and NG, which peaked in May. Volatile production for most compounds increased with delayed harvest time at least until May (some dropped off in June), including acetaldehyde, octanal, hexanal, decamal, ethanol, hexanol, E-2-hexenol, linalool, octanol, a-pinene, mycene, limonene, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate and methyl butanoate. Some compounds, such as methanol valenceneand ethyl acetate decreased with delayed harvest. Z-3-hexenol and a-terpineol showed similar patterns, decreasing in April and May and increasing thereafter. The results indicate that fruit harvested in earlier in the season had better quality in terms of higher juice content, better SSC/TA ratio (April to May, 15.1-18.6 ratio), higher levels of ascorbic acid, flavonoid and other second metabolite components. However, fruit harvested later in the season likely had more aroma and lower levels of bitter components.

Last Modified: 12/19/2014
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