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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL OF NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF RAW AND PROCESSED GRAINS, LEGUMES, AND VEGETABLES Title: Carbohydrate Composition of Raw and Extruded Pulse Flours

Authors
item Berrios, Jose
item Morales, Patricia -
item Camara, Montana -
item Sanchez-Mata, Maria -

Submitted to: Food Research International
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 13, 2009
Publication Date: March 2, 2010
Citation: Berrios, J.D., Morales, P., Camara, M., Sanchez-Mata, M.C. 2010. Carbohydrate Composition of Raw and Extruded Pulse Flours. Food Research International. 43: 531-536.

Interpretive Summary: Extrusion cooking technology is commercially used in the fabrication of a variety of snack-type and ready-to-eat foods made from cereals grains. However, with the exception of soybean, other pulses such as lentil, dry pea and chickpea have not been used for the development of extruded food products. In this study, total carbohydrates, sugars, and soluble and insoluble dietary fiber were determined before and after extrusion cooking. Total available carbohydrates (TAC) in lentil, chickpea and dry pea flours ranged between 625 g/kg to 657 g/kg. Dry pea showed the highest concentration of TAC, followed by chickpea and lentil. Extrusion processing did not affect the total sugar content of dry pea and lentil flours. However, it decreased the concentration of complex carbohydrates in the pulse extrudates. Formulated pulse flours demonstrated the beneficial increase in dietary fiber in the extrudates. This research indicates that value-added, nutritious snacks with low flatulence factor and high content of dietary fiber could be fabricated successfully by extrusion cooking from lentil-, dry pea-, and chickpea-based formulations, as a good alternative to traditional cereal-based snacks. Also, the potential commercialization of value-added, pulse-based snacks would increase pulse consumption in the diet of the population.

Technical Abstract: Extrusion cooking technology is commercially used in the fabrication of a variety of snack-type and ready-to-eat foods made from cereals grains. However, with the exception of soybean, other pulses such as lentil, dry pea and chickpea have not been used for the development of extruded food products. In this study, total carbohydrates, mono, di and oligosaccharides, and soluble and insoluble dietary fiber were determined before and after extrusion cooking under specific processing conditions. Total available carbohydrates (TAC) in lentil, chickpea and dry pea flours ranged between 625 g/kg to 657 g/kg dry matter. Dry pea showed the highest concentration of TAC, followed by chickpea and lentil. Extrusion processing did not significantly (p <0.05) affect the total sugar content of dry pea and lentil flours. However, extrusion processing decreased the concentration of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose) in the pulse extrudates. Formulated pulse flours demonstrated the beneficial increase in dietary fiber in the resultant flours. This research indicates that value-added, nutritious snacks with low flatulence factor and high content of dietary fiber could be fabricated successfully by extrusion processing from lentil-, dry pea-, and chickpea-based formulations, as a good alternative to traditional cereal-based snacks. Also, the potential commercialization of value-added, pulse-based snacks would increase pulse consumption in the diet of the population.

Last Modified: 10/23/2014
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