Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONSERVATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH FOR IMPROVING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND PRODUCER PROFITABILITY

Location: National Soil Dynamics Laboratory

Title: Weed seedbank density and composition in a tillage and landscape variability study

Authors
item Kelton, Jessica -
item Price, Andrew
item Van Santen, Edzard -
item Balkcom, Kipling
item Arriaga, Francisco
item Shaw, Joey -

Submitted to: Communications in Biometry and Crop Science (CBCS)
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 23, 2011
Publication Date: April 5, 2011
Citation: Kelton, J.A., Price, A.J., Van Santen, E., Balkcom, K.S., Arriaga, F.J., Shaw, J.N. 2011. Weed seedbank density and composition in a tillage and landscape variability study. Communications in Biometry and Crop Science (CBCS). 6(1):21-30.

Interpretive Summary: Weed density and composition are influenced by numerous environmental and cropping system attributes. The objective of this study was to evaluate cropping and landscape affects on weed seedbank composition and density. The six major weeds (totaling 19,087 individual seedlings) included: annual bluegrass (739), carpetweed (539), common chickweed (851), henbit (15,376), purple cudweed (398), and smallflowered bittercress (587). The weed density in the upper (0-7.6-cm) soil cores was influenced by all main effects with mean seed densities lower for non-inversion tillage, cotton, no manure, and sideslope positions. Lower (7.6-15.2-cm) soil core weed densities were influenced by tillage and manure with density patterns following the same trend as the upper soil cores. Results from this experiment indicate that the inclusion of cover crops into a conservation tillage system could potentially lessen the need for an increased herbicide regime to suppress weed growth and propagation.

Technical Abstract: Weed density and composition are influenced by numerous environmental and cropping system attributes. The objective of this study was to evaluate cropping and landscape affects on weed seedbank composition and density. Soil samples at two depths (0-7.6 cm and 7.6-15.2 cm) were collected from an established experiment located on a 9-ha Coastal Plain field at the E.V. Smith Research and Extension Center near Shorter, AL. The experimental design was a factorial arrangement of two tillage systems (conventional and non-inversion subsoiling with cover crops), with and without manure, three landscape positions (summit, drainageway or toeslope, and sideslope), and a corn-cotton rotation with both phases of the rotation present. Five soil cores divided by depth were sieved and mixed to represent one sample from each cell. Soil samples were then placed in plastic trays and kept moist for approximately five months until seedling emergence ceased, chilled, and the process repeated. Weed seedlings were identified and subsequently removed after emergence. The six major weeds (totaling 19,087 individual seedlings) included: annual bluegrass (739), carpetweed (539), common chickweed (851), henbit (15,376), purple cudweed (398), and smallflowered bittercress (587). The weed density in the upper (0-7.6-cm) soil cores was influenced by all main effects with mean seed densities lower for non-inversion tillage, cotton, no manure, and sideslope positions. Lower (7.6-15.2-cm) soil core weed densities were influenced by tillage and manure with density patterns following the same trend as the upper soil cores. Main treatments had mixed effects on weed species richness, diversity, and evenness depending on the soil depth. Additionally, species composition was slightly influenced by crop selection. Results from this experiment indicate that the inclusion of cover crops into a conservation tillage system could potentially lessen the need for an increased herbicide regime to suppress weed growth and propagation.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page