Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 30, 2009
Publication Date: April 1, 2010
Citation: Kendra, P.E., Epsky, N.D., Heath, R.R. 2010. Effective sampling range of food-based attractants for female Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 103(2):533-540. Interpretive Summary: Tephritid fruit flies are major pests of fruit and vegetable crops worldwide. Area-wide control programs make extensive use of food-based attractants that target female flies, yet little information is available on the effective trapping range of these attractants. Scientists at the Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (Miami, FL) conducted release/recapture studies with marked flies to determine the range for two female attractants, a liquid protein bait (hydrolyzed torula yeast) and a synthetic lure (ammonium acetate and putrescine). Tests involved releasing flies from a central location and recording the number captured in 25 baited traps spaced at known distances from the release point. Trapping range for wild females with the synthetic lure was determined to be 30 m. Range of both attractants for a sterile strain of flies was 20 m. In all tests, wind direction had a strong influence on the distribution of fly recaptures. This information will be used by scientists and action agencies to determine proper spacing of traps for use in pest monitoring, mass trapping control strategies, and identification of centers of infestation for precision targeting of control measures.
Technical Abstract: Release/recapture studies were conducted with both feral and sterile females of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), to determine sampling range for a liquid protein bait (hydrolyzed torula yeast) and for a two-component synthetic lure (ammonium acetate and putrescine). Tests were done in a guava grove (Psidium guajava L.) and involved releasing flies at a central point and recording the numbers captured after 7 h, 1, 2, 3, and 6 d in an array of 25 Multilure traps located 9-46 m from the release point. In all tests, highest rate of recapture occurred within the first day of release, so estimations of sampling range were based on a 24 h period. Trap distances were grouped into four categories (<10 m, 10-20 m, 20-30 m, and >30 m from release point) and relative trapping efficiency (RTE) was determined for each distance group. Effective sampling range was defined as the maximum distance at which RTE was = 25%. Contour analysis was also performed to document spatial distribution of fly dispersal. In tests with sterile flies, immature females dispersed farther and were recovered in higher numbers than mature females, regardless of attractant, and recapture of both cohorts was higher with torula yeast. For mature feral flies, range of the synthetic lure was determined to be 30 m. With sterile females, effective range of both attractants was 20 m. Contour maps indicated that wind direction had a strong influence on the active space of attractants, as reflected by distribution of captured flies.