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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: PREPARATION, PROPERTIES, AND COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS OF STARCH-LIPID COMPOSITIONS PREPARED BY STEAM JET COOKING

Location: Functional Foods Research Unit

Title: Jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and shortening composites for use in cake icings

Authors
item Singh, Mukti
item Byars, Jeffrey

Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 27, 2011
Publication Date: October 17, 2011
Citation: Singh, M., Byars, J.A. 2011. Jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and shortening composites for use in cake icings. Journal of Food Science. 76(8):E530-E535.

Interpretive Summary: This research determined that starch-lipid composites (SLC) have potential for substituting shortening in low-fat cake icings. Icings traditionally contain up to 40% shortening, and are used to decorate cakes for special occasions. The main objective was to develop and characterize low-fat icings made using SLC instead of shortening. SLC were prepared by jet cooking high amylose corn starch in the presence of oleic acid, and shortening. Combinations of liquid and freeze-dried SLC having different levels of fat were used to obtain a wide range of fat content in the resulting icings. SLC icings prepared for this study had fat content between 1 and 13% fat. Physical, textural and rheological characteristics of icings were measured. It was found that SLC icings with as low as 10 % fat had properties similar to that of full-fat shortening icing. This study indicates potential new applications for SLC that benefit the cake decorating industry by generating new products offering healthy alternatives.

Technical Abstract: Cake decorating continues to be popular for special occasions. Butter cream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As the consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, low-fat food increases. High-amylose corn starch was cooked in an excess-steam jet cooker in the presence of oleic acid. Amylose formed helical inclusion complexes with the fatty acid. Shortening was added at different levels to jet coked starch. The resulting starch lipid composites (SLC) had 0, 8, 16 and 24% fat. The composites were used to substitute shortening in the preparation of cake icings with 1 to 13% fat. SLC icings were formulated by either keeping the total solids constant, or the starch and sugar to water ratio constant as the fat level was reduced. The effect of fat and formulation of shortening and SLC icings on the physical and rheological characteristics were studied. It was found that low-fat SLC icings can be prepared by optimizing the formulation.

Last Modified: 4/21/2014
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