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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ENHANCEMENT OF SORGHUM FOR BIOENERGY, FEED, AND FOOD VALUE Title: Environment and Hybrid Influences on Food-Grade Sorghum Grain Yield and Hardness

Authors
item Griess, Joni -
item Mason, Stephen -
item Jackson, David -
item Galusha, Tomie -
item Yaseen, Muhammad -
item Pedersen, Jeffrey

Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 5, 2010
Publication Date: June 7, 2010
Repository URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/43384
Citation: Griess, J., Mason, S., Jackson, D., Galusha, T., Yaseen, M., Pedersen, J.F. 2010. Environment and Hybrid Influences on Food-Grade Sorghum Grain Yield and Hardness. Crop Science. 50: 1480-1489.

Interpretive Summary: Expanding opportunities in food-grade sorghum create the need to better understand the relationships among grain quality, hybrids, and the environment in which such hybrids are produced. An experiment was conducted to evaluate all food-grade sorghum hybrids commercially available in 2004 in 12 environments, which included irrigated and dryland water regimes in eastern, central, and west central Nebraska, and a dryland low N environment in eastern NE. Grain yield, quality traits including test weight and hardness, and protein and starch concentration were measured. Environment accounted for 5 to 140 fold greater variation in measured traits than hybrid. Highest yields occurred under irrigated conditions. Nebraska production environments have the capability to produce high quality food-grade sorghums for specific food uses to benefit both the producer and the food processor. In irrigated environments the check hybrid Pioneer 84Y00 and the food-grade hybrid Kelly Green Seed KG6902 produce high yields. Dryland environments with low seasonal rainfall produce harder kernels desired for dry milling food purposes, and the hardest food-grade sorghum hybrid was Asgrow Orbit. The food-grade hybrids Kelly Green Seed KG6902, NC+7W92, and Fontanelle W-1000 are low protein, high starch candidates for brewing.

Technical Abstract: Few studies have examined grain quality of food-grade sorghum hybrids. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environment and hybrid on grain quality of commercially available food-grade sorghums. A randomized complete block experiment with three replications was planted in 12 environments, which included 2004 and 2005 growing seasons, and irrigated and dryland water regimes in eastern, central, and west central NE, and a dryland low N environment in eastern NE. Grain yield, kernel weight, bulk and true densities, tangential abrasive dehulling device (TADD) removal; and protein and starch concentration were measured. Environment accounted for 5 to 140 fold greater variation in measured parameters than hybrid. Grain yield and kernel weights varied, with low yields of 1.4 Mg ha-1 and kernels weighing 9.5 g 1000 kernels-1 in the Mead Dryland with Low N 2004 environment, and high yields of 10.5 Mg ha-1 under irrigated conditions at Clay Center in 2005, and kernels weighing 27.8 g 1000 kernels-1 in the Mead Dryland 2005 environment. Harder grain was produced in 2005 than in 2004, with Orleans Dryland and Hebron 2005 having the lowest TADD removal of 14%. Check hybrids produced higher yields and kernel weights than food-grade hybrids. Nebraska production environments have the capability to produce high quality food-grade sorghums for specific food uses to benefit both the producer and the food processor. In irrigated environments the check hybrid Pioneer 84Y00 and the food-grade hybrid Kelly Green Seed KG6902 produce high yields. Dryland environments with low seasonal rainfall produce harder kernels desired for dry milling food purposes, and the hardest food-grade sorghum hybrid was Asgrow Orbit. The food-grade hybrids Kelly Green Seed KG6902, NC+7W92, and Fontanelle W-1000 are low protein, high starch candidates for brewing.

Last Modified: 12/20/2014
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