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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DEVELOPING NOVEL PROCESSES FOR INCORPORATING THE UNIQUE NUTRITIONAL AMD FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RICE INTO VALUE-ADDED PRODUCTS

Location: Food Processing and Sensory Quality Research

Title: Important sensory properties differentiating premium rice cultivars.

Authors
item Champagne, Elaine
item BETT-GARBER, KAREN
item THOMSON, JESSICA
item GRIMM, CASEY
item LEA, JEANNE
item Fitzgerald, Melissa -
item Resurreccion, Adoracion -
item Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi -
item Jongdee, Supanee -
item Xie, Lihong -

Submitted to: Rice
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 1, 2010
Publication Date: December 10, 2010
Citation: Champagne, E.T., Bett Garber, K.L., Thomson, J.L., Grimm, C.C., Lea, J.M., Fitzgerald, M.A., Resurreccion, A., Ohtsubo, K., Jongdee, S., Xie, L. 2010. Important sensory properties differentiating premium rice cultivars. Rice. 3:270-281.

Interpretive Summary: Consumers from countries that traditionally eat rice as a staple have strong preferences for cooked rice with specific aroma, texture, and appearance. Specific premium, “gold standard” cultivars are recognized as being highly desirable, while others are recognized as being superior, but not the best. It has been difficult to ascertain whether preferences for premium rice cultivars are driven by discernable differences in flavor and texture when compared to that of superior cultivars, or by name recognition, customs, physical characteristics, and agronomical features. In this study a trained panel characterized and analytically measured the aroma, flavor, and texture of premium and superior cultivars collected from nine rice-consuming countries. Color, considered by consumers to be important, was instrumentally measured on raw and cooked rice. Sweet taste, popcorn, and water-like metallic mouthfeel were the only flavor attributes of the thirteen measured to show significant differences between the premium-superior country cultivar pairs. Slickness, roughness, stickiness to lips, stickiness between grains, springiness, hardness, cohesiveness, and moisture absorption were significantly different between premium and superior cultivars for one or more country pairs. Most of the observations for the differences in sweet taste and texture can be explained by correlative relationships of these attributes with fertilization (nitrogen nutrition), protein, and/or amylose (a form of starch) contents. When cooked, eight of the ten premium cultivars were of the same or greater whiteness than their superior counterparts. This research provides an objective comparison of the flavor, texture, and color of premium and superior cultivars that will be of interest to the rice industry worldwide.

Technical Abstract: In rice-consuming countries worldwide, specific cultivars are recognized as premium, “gold standard” cultivars, while others are recognized as being superior, but not the best. It has been difficult to ascertain whether preferences for premium rice cultivars are driven by discernable differences in sensory properties compared to those of other superior cultivars, or by name recognition, customs, physical characteristics, and agronomical features. The objectives of this preliminary study were to determine if there are distinguishable differences in the sensory properties of premium and superior cultivars, and whether these differences are shared in common by the premium cultivars. A trained sensory panel employed descriptive sensory analysis, an objective tool, to characterize and analytically measure the aroma, flavor, and texture of premium and superior cultivars collected from nine rice-consuming countries. Color, considered by consumers to be important in rice sensory quality, was instrumentally measured on the raw and cooked rice presented to the panelists. Sweet taste, popcorn aroma/flavor, and water-like metallic mouthfeel were the only aroma/flavor-taste-mouthfeel attributes of the thirteen measured to show significant differences between the premium-superior cultivar pairs. Slickness, roughness, stickiness to lips, stickiness between grains, springiness, hardness, cohesiveness, and moisture absorption were significantly different between premium and superior cultivars for one or more country pairs. Most of the observations for the differences in sweet taste and texture can be explained by correlative relationships of these attributes with fertilization (nitrogen nutrition), protein, and/or amylose contents. Ward’s Cluster Analysis was used to categorize the rice based on common flavor and texture characteristics. The cultivars did not cluster based on premium – superior classification. Most of the country pairs fell in the same clusters, but not Zhongzheyou 1 – Guodao 6 from China, IR64 and IRRI-132 from the Philippines, and BR IRGA-417 and BRS Primavera from Brazil. The whiteness of the raw premium rice compared to its superior counterpart was not an indicator of the relative whiteness of the cooked rice. When cooked the only premium rice cultivars that were not of the same or greater whiteness than their superior counterparts were IR64 and BR IRGA 417, which were less white than IRRI-132 and BRS Primavera, respectively.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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