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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DETECTION, CONTROL AND AREA-WIDE MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLIES

Location: Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research

Title: Novel Bait Stations for Attract-and-Kill of Pestiferous Fruit Flies

Authors
item Pinero, Jaime -
item Mau, Ronald -
item McQuate, Grant
item Vargas, Roger

Submitted to: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 6, 2009
Publication Date: November 1, 2009
Citation: Pinero, J.C., Mau, R.F., Mcquate, G.T., Vargas, R.I. 2009. Novel Bait Stations for Attract-and-Kill of Pestiferous Fruit Flies. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 133: 208-216.

Interpretive Summary: Bait stations are environmentally friendly tools for fruit fly population suppression. They provide a place for application of insecticidal baits that is protected from being washed away by rains. The need to develop rain-fast bait stations has been recognized by numerous researchers in various areas of the world. This paper reports on a novel, visually attractive, bait station that provides a means of protecting baits against rainfall. It was developed in Hawaii for use against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a way of improving the efficacy of insecticidal baits. Field studies revealed that the behavioral response of female fruit flies, in particular Mediterranean fruit fly and melon fly, to yellow-painted bait stations sprayed with GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait was significantly enhanced compared to similarly sprayed bait stations that mimicked the green color of fully grown papaya leaves. The yellow color of the bait station, as conclusively shown in the present study, enhances the behavioral response of wild females, in particular Mediterranean fruit fly and melon fly, to the bait. The novel bait station developed is an open system which, after application of a fruit fly bait such as GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait, can help to control both oriental fruit fly and melon fly in papaya orchards, and potentially, also, melon fly in vegetable crops. An additional benefit of the described bait stations is that they also extend, for at least one week, the period of bait attractiveness.

Technical Abstract: A novel, visually attractive bait station was developed in Hawaii for application of insecticidal baits against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The bait station developed represents a supernormal visual stimulus of papaya foliage and takes advantage of the flies’ strong response to the high light-reflecting properties of yellow color and of their need for shelter while fully protecting the bait against rainfall. Field studies revealed that the behavioral response of female fruit flies, in particular C. capitata and B. cucurbitae, to yellow-painted bait stations sprayed with GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait was significantly enhanced compared to similarly sprayed bait stations that mimicked the green color of fully grown papaya leaves. Field studies conducted with B. cucurbitae indicated that the period of bait attractiveness can be extended for at least one week after bait application due to the rain-fastness properties of the bait stations and the use of a visually attractive color. Our studies provide the behavioral basis for development of improved attract-and-kill bait stations for fruit flies in Hawaii. These devices also provide a standardized way of evaluating bait spray formulations thus allowing for proper comparisons over time, across species and among geographical areas.

Last Modified: 7/22/2014
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