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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IPM TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUBTROPICAL INSECT PESTS

Location: Subtropical Insects and Horticulture Research

Title: Season-long mating disruption of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, with an emulsified wax formulation of pheromone

Authors
item Stelinski, Lukasz -
item Lapointe, Stephen
item Meyer, Wendy -

Submitted to: Journal of Applied Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 8, 2009
Publication Date: October 20, 2009
Citation: Stelinski, L., Lapointe, S.L., Meyer, W.L. 2009. Season-long mating disruption of citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, with an emulsified wax formulation of pheromone. Journal of Applied Entomology. 134: 512-520.

Interpretive Summary: The citrus leafminer (CLM) is a major pest of citrus due to direct feeding damage and facilitation of infection by citrus canker, an important bacterial disease of citrus. The use of CLM sex pheromone for mating disruption has proven to be effective against this pest. We achieved season-long disruption of CLM with a newly developed, flowable emulsified wax dispenser of pheromone (SPLAT-CLM™). A formulation containing a blend of two major CLM pheromone components caused season-long disruption as well as reduced leaf infestation. Effective disruption occurred at a deployment rate of 126 µg of the pheromone comopnent per hectare per hour. A formulation of the 3:1 blend at a lower rate caused only 2-6 weeks of disruption and did not reduce leaf infestation during mid-season and final evaluations of leaf infestation. The SPLAT formulation appears to be an excellent release device given that approximately 100 d of steady release occurred following an initial brief (ca. 7 d) burst of higher release. The advantages of SPLAT as a formulation for CLM disruption include low cost of manufacturing, biodegradable and weather resistant characteristics, and flowability allowing machine application. Mating disruption should be an effective alternative to insecticides for management of CLM and may reduce incidence of citrus canker.

Technical Abstract: Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella, is a major world wide pest of citrus. Mating disruption has proven effective against this pest in small plot investigations. We achieved season-long disruption of P. citrella with a newly developed, flowable emulsified wax dispenser of pheromone (SPLAT-CLM™). A formulation containing a 3:1 blend of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal:(Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal at a 0.2% loading rate of AI by weight and deployed twice per season (24 wk total) at 490g of formulation/ha caused season-long disruption of male moth catch in pheromone traps as well as reduced leaf infestation. Analysis of pheromone release from dispensers by gas chromatography revealed that effective disruption occurred at a deployment rate of 126 µg of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal/ha per h. Direct observation of moth behavior suggested that disruption occurred by a non-competitive mechanism. A formulation of the 3:1 attractive blend at a 0.02% pheromone loading rate caused only 2-6 weeks of disruption per deployment and did not reduce leaf infestation during mid-season and final evaluations of leaf infestation. A formulation containing 0.2% of (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal alone and deployed at 490g/ha caused 6-7 wk of moth disruption to pheromone traps and did not prevent leaf infestation, while an identical formulation loaded with 0.02% (w/w) of (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal alone had no effect on P. citrella orientation to pheromone traps. The SPLAT formulation appears to be an excellent release device for (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal given that approximately 100 d of steady release occurred following an initial brief (ca. 7 d) burst of higher release. The advantages of SPLAT as a formulation for P. citrella disruption include low cost of manufacturing, biodegradable and weather resistant characteristics, and flowability allowing machine application. Mating disruption should be an effective alternative to insecticides for management of P. citrella and may reduce incidence of citrus canker.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014
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