VACCINOLOGY AND IMMUNITY OF AQUATIC ANIMALS
Location: Aquatic Animal Health Research
Title: Overview of zoonotic infections from fish and shellfish
Submitted to: European Association of Fish Pathologists
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: April 23, 2009
Publication Date: September 14, 2009
Citation: Evans, J.J., Klesius, P.H., Haenen, O., Shoemaker, C.A. 2009. Overview of zoonotic infections from fish and shellfish. 14th European Association of Fish Pathologists. International Conference Prague, Czech Republic September 14-19, 2009.
As aquaculture production and consumption of aquacultural products increases, the possibility of zoonotic infection from either handling or ingestion of these products also increases. The principal pathogens acquired topically from fish or shellfish through spine/pincer puncture or open wounds are Aeromonas hydrophilia, Edwardsiella tarda, Mycobacterium marinum, Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio vulnificus and V. damsela. All of these indigenous pathogens have also been associated with disease outbreaks in food fish. Outbreaks are often related to management factors such as quality and quantity of nutrients and water and stocking density which increase bacterial loads on the external surface of the fish and risk of disease. As a result, diseased fish are more likely to transmit infection to humans. Although most fish-associated wound infections are self-limiting, more serious infections tend to be associated with immune impairment, highly virulent strains, a large inoculum, deep penetration of the skin, or a combination of these factors. Infections may often be mixed. Food-borne illnesses acquired through consumption of mishandled seafood are a result of indigenous pathogens such as Vibrio spp., Edwardsiella tarda, and noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses) and by extraneous pathogens including Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, and Escherichia coli. This presentation will provide a literature review of worldwide human cases of zoonosis including clinical characteristics from the principal fish and shellfish zoonotic pathogens and potential zoonotic pathogens, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus) and Lactococcus garvieae.