Submitted to: Turkish Journal of Entomology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: September 23, 2009
Publication Date: December 31, 2009
Citation: Mennan, S., Handoo, Z.A., Ecevit, O. 2009. Distribution and infestation rate of cyst nematodes (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) in cabbage growing areas in Samsun. Turkish Journal of Entomology. 33(4):289-303.
Interpretive Summary: Plant-parasitic nematodes are microscopic worms that attack plant roots and cause an estimated ten billion dollars of crop loss each year in the United States and 100 billion dollars globally. Cyst nematodes are an important group damaging the roots of many kinds of plants worldwide. In order to determine if cyst nematodes are causing agricultural problems, crop specialists routinely conduct field surveys looking for the presence of nematodes. This brief survey performed by an ARS scientist and scientists at Ondokuz Mayis University in Turkey describes the distribution and frequency of occurrence of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun, Turkey. Two economically important cyst nematode species were commonly found. The results are significant because they represent the first indication that cyst nematodes may damage cabbages in Samsun, Turkey. Therefore, this report will serve as a useful guide to researchers and diagnosticians identifying economically important cyst nematodes species, especially in cabbage-growing areas in Turkey.
Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp.) in Samsun, Turkey is needed to assess their potential to cause economic damage on many crop plants. Surveys on the distribution and infestation rates of cyst nematodes in cabbage fields in Samsun were conducted during 2002-2006. The results indicated that 45 of the 101 fields were infected with cyst nematodes; the most common species were Heterodera cruciferae (78%) and H. mediterranea (20%). The fields infested with both species were rare. White and red head cabbage varieties were infected with H. cruciferae (46%) but kale was less frequently infected, whereas red and white head cabbage fields were infested with H. mediterranea 78% and 22%, respectively. Photomicrographs and morphometric details of juveniles and cysts of these populations are given. Additional information regarding distribution of these cyst nematodes within the region is needed.