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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT AND USE OF ANIMAL MANURE TO PROTECT HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

Location: Food Animal Environmental Systems Research Unit

Title: Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Biofilms on Livestock Watering Trough Materials

Authors
item Cook, Kimberly
item Britt, Jenks -
item Bolster, Carl

Submitted to: Veterinary Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 3, 2009
Publication Date: January 31, 2010
Repository URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/40792
Citation: Cook, K.L., Britt, J., Bolster, C.H. 2010. Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Biofilms on Livestock Watering Trough Materials. Veterinary Microbiology. 141(1):103-109.

Interpretive Summary: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric infection that affects ruminants. Despite the fact that Johne’s disease has been reported worldwide, little research has been done to assess its survival in agricultural environments. The goal of this 365 day study was to evaluate the ability of Map to persist in mixed-community biofilms on coupons composed of common livestock watering trough materials. Map was inoculated into triplicate containers with 32L of trough water and either concrete, plastic, galvanized or stainless steel coupons. High concentrations of Map were detected within the biofilms after three days (around 1 X 10e5 cells per cm2). The time required for a 99% reduction (t99) in biofilm-associated Map cells was very high for galvanized steel and concrete (1.1 x 106 and 7.5 x 104 days, respectively) and much lower for plastic and stainless steel trough materials (46 and 27 days, respectively). In general, Map concentrations on stainless steel and plastic trough materials were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentration on the other trough materials. These results suggest that Map survives well in biofilms present on trough materials. Trough material composition influenced the survival of Map with the lowest survival exhibited on stainless steel, followed by plastic, galvanized steel and concrete.

Technical Abstract: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease, a chronic enteric infection that affects ruminants. Despite the ubiquitous occurrence of Mycobacterium sp. in nature and the fact that Johne’s disease has been reported worldwide, little research has been done to assess its survival in agricultural environments. The goal of this 365 day study was to evaluate the ability of M. paratuberculosis to persist in mixed-community biofilms on coupons composed of common livestock watering trough materials. M. paratuberculosis was inoculated into triplicate containers with 32L of trough water and either concrete, plastic, galvanized or stainless steel coupons. The concentration of M. paratuberculosis was determined by using quantitative, real-time PCR to target the IS900 sequence in DNA extracts. High concentrations of M. paratuberculosis were detected within the biofilms after three days (around 1 X 105 cells per cm2). Based on the best-fit slopes, the time required for a 99% reduction (t99) in coupon-associated M. paratuberculosis cells were 1.1 x 106, 7.5 x 104, 46 and 27 days for galvanized steel, concrete, plastic and stainless steel trough materials, respectively. In general, M. paratuberculosis concentrations on stainless steel and plastic trough materials were one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentration on the other trough materials. These results suggest that M. paratuberculosis survives well in biofilms present on trough materials. Trough material composition influenced the survival of M. paratuberculosis with the lowest survival exhibited on stainless steel, followed by plastic, galvanized steel and concrete.

Last Modified: 9/20/2014