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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ECOLOGICALLY-SOUND PEST, WATER AND SOIL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS CROPPING SYSTEMS

Location: Agricultural Systems Research Unit

Title: Soil and Surface Runoff Phosphorus Relationships for Five Typical USA Midwest Soils

Authors
item Allen, Brett
item Mallarino, Antonio -
item Klatt, Jeremy -
item Baker, James -
item Camara, Mohammed -

Submitted to: Journal of Environmental Quality
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 15, 2006
Publication Date: March 1, 2006
Repository URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/58385
Citation: Allen, B.L., Mallarino, A.P., Klatt, J.G., Baker, J.L., Camara, M. 2006. Soil and Surface Runoff Phosphorus Relationships for Five Typical USA Midwest Soils. Journal of Environmental Quality. 35: 599-610.

Interpretive Summary: Excessive soil P increases the risk of P loss with surface runoff. This study used indoor rainfall simulations to characterize soil and runoff P relationships for five Midwest soils incubated with five NH4H2PO4 rates for 30 d. Total soil P (TPS) and soil-test P (STP) measured with Bray-P1 (BP), Mehlich-3 (M3P), Olsen (OP), Fe-oxide-impregnated paper (FeP), and water (WP) tests were 370 to 1360, 3 to 530, 10 to 675, 4 to 640, 7 to 507, and 2 to 568 mg P kg–1, respectively. Degree of soil P saturation (DPS) was estimated by indices based on P sorption index (PSI) and STP (DPSSTP) and P, Fe, and Al extracted by ammonium oxalate (DPSox) or Mehlich-3 (DPSM3). Soil was packed in boxes set at 4% slope. Surface runoff was collected during 75 min of 6.5 cm h–1 rain. Runoff bioavailable P (BAP) and dissolved reactive P (DRP) increased linearly with increased P rate, STP, DPSox, and DPSM3 but curvilinearly with DPSSTP. Correlations between DRP or BAP and soil tests or saturation indices across soils were greatest (r 0.95) for FeP, OP, and WP and poorest for BP and TPS (r = 0.83–0.88). Differences in relationships between runoff P and P application or soil P were small or nonexistent among four noncalcareous soils but often differed for a calcareous soil. Routine soil P tests can be used to estimate runoff P concentration from these soils, although estimates would be improved by separate calibrations for calcareous and noncalcareous soils when the BP test is used.

Technical Abstract: Excessively high soil P can increase P loss with surface runoff. This study used indoor rainfall simulations to characterize soil and runoff P relationships for five Midwest soils (Argiudoll, Calciaquaoll, Hapludalf, and two Hapludolls). Topsoil (15-cm depth, 241–289 g clay kg–1 and pH 6.0–8.0) was incubated with five NH4H2PO4 rates (0–600 mg P kg–1) for 30 d. Total soil P (TPS) and soil-test P (STP) measured with Bray-P1 (BP), Mehlich-3 (M3P), Olsen (OP), Fe-oxide-impregnated paper (FeP), and water (WP) tests were 370 to 1360, 3 to 530, 10 to 675, 4 to 640, 7 to 507, and 2 to 568 mg P kg–1, respectively. Degree of soil P saturation (DPS) was estimated by indices based on P sorption index (PSI) and STP (DPSSTP) and P, Fe, and Al extracted by ammonium oxalate (DPSox) or Mehlich-3 (DPSM3). Soil was packed to 1.1 g cm–3 bulk density in triplicate boxes set at 4% slope. Surface runoff was collected during 75 min of 6.5 cm h–1 rain. Runoff bioavailable P (BAP) and dissolved reactive P (DRP) increased linearly with increased P rate, STP, DPSox, and DPSM3 but curvilinearly with DPSSTP. Correlations between DRP or BAP and soil tests or saturation indices across soils were greatest (r 0.95) for FeP, OP, and WP and poorest for BP and TPS (r = 0.83–0.88). Excluding the calcareous soil (Calciaquoll) significantly improved correlations only for BP. Differences in relationships between runoff P and the soil tests were small or nonexistent among the noncalcareous soils. Routine soil P tests can estimate relationships between runoff P concentration and P application or soil P, although estimates would be improved by separate calibrations for calcareous and noncalcareous soils.

Last Modified: 9/23/2014
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