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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER AND PIERCE'S DISEASE Title: Dispersal, patch Leaving, and distribution of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

Authors
item Northfield, T -
item Mizell, R -
item Paini, D -
item Andersen, P -
item Brodbeck, B -
item Riddle, T -
item Hunter, Wayne

Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 30, 2009
Publication Date: April 14, 2009
Citation: Northfield, T., Mizell, R., Paini, D., Andersen, P., Brodbeck, B., Riddle, T., Hunter, W.B. 2009. Dispersal, patch Leaving, and distribution of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Environmental Entomology. 38(1):183-191.

Interpretive Summary: We produced a behavioral model which integrates leafhopper behavior and life history strategies with nutritional requirements, as a useful tool to understand the patterns of leafhopper host plant utilization, vector behavior and ecology, and aids the development of better biological control and habitat manipulation strategies aimed at reducing the spread of Pierce’s disease by the glassy-winged sharpshooter leafhopper and other related species. Pierce’s disease causes millions of dollars in losses to southern California vineyards. To calculate the movements of these leafhoppers, the effects of surrounding vegetation on the dispersal and distribution needed to be examined. The relationship between dispersal rates and plant-patch quality was tested, as well as the basic predictions of the marginal value theorem. Additional experiments were conducted to compare sharpshooter distribution in an isolated crape myrtle patch and a patch bordering two alternative host patches. In mark-release-recapture tests, sharpshooters dispersed farther from the release point in a patch of low-quality host plants than in patches of the high-quality host crape myrtle. In addition, sharpshooters remained in crape myrtle patches longer. In distribution tests, sharpshooters were more abundant in the patch center than patch edges in the isolated crape myrtle patch, but in a patch bordering cottonwood and peach, sharpshooter numbers were generally higher along the edges of the patch. These data suggest that alternate hosts bordering cropping systems may be important to the spatial dynamics of the glassy-winged sharpshooter. Implications of these spatial observations on the biology and movement of H. vitripennis directly influence where and which management strategies and methods should be applied.

Technical Abstract: Influences on the dispersal, distribution, and residence times of the glassy-winged sharpshooter leafhopper, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were measured to establish a model of leafhopper behavior. This model aids in the management and design of cropping systems to reduce Pierce’s disease in grapes and other woody crops. Pierce’s disease causes millions of dollars in damage to southern California vineyards. However, the effects of surrounding vegetation on the dispersal and distribution of H. vitripennis are poorly understood. Therefore, the relationship between dispersal rates and patch quality was tested, as well as the basic predictions of the marginal value theorem. Additional experiments were conducted to compare the H. vitripennis distribution in an isolated crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) patch and a L. indica patch bordering two alternative host patches. In mark-release-recapture tests, H. vitripennis dispersed farther from the release point in a patch of low-quality host plants (Prunus persica) than in patches of high-quality host plants (L. indica). In addition, H. vitripennis remained in L. indica patches longer than in P. persica patches and adjusted patch residence times in P. persica in direct correlation with the known changes in plant physiology. These data suggest that H. vitripennis follows the basic predictions of marginal value theorem. Remaining in nutritionally beneficial host patches longer, and dispersing as the physiology of these plants change and their nutritional quality decreases. In distribution tests, H. vitripennis were more abundant in the patch center than patch edges in the isolated L. indica patch, but in a patch bordering cottonwood (Populus sp.) and peach (P. persica), H. vitripennis numbers were generally higher along the edges of the patch. These data suggest that alternate hosts bordering cropping systems are important and my influence the spatial dynamics of H. vitripennis. Implications of being able to define these influences, and spatial observations, on the biology and behaviors of H. vitripennis, provide new insights for the development of more efficacious management strategies and methods.

Last Modified: 10/24/2014
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