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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: COUNTERMEASURES TO PREVENT THE PORCINE RESPIRATORY DISEASE COMPLEX (PRDC) Title: Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of two antigenically distinct O antigens in Bordetella bronchiseptica

Authors
item Buboltz, Anne - PENN STATE UNIVERSITY
item Nicholson, Tracy
item Karanikas, Alexia - PENN STATE UNIVERSITY
item Preston, Andrew - UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL
item Harvill, Eric - PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: Infection and Immunity
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 15, 2009
Publication Date: August 5, 2009
Citation: Buboltz, A., Nicholson, T.L., Karanikas, A., Preston, A., Harvill, E. 2009. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of two antigenically distinct O antigens in Bordetella bronchiseptica. Infection and Immunity. 77(8):3249-3257.

Interpretive Summary: Antigenic variation is one mechanism pathogens use to avoid immune-mediated competition between closely related strains. Here, we show that two Bordetella bronchiseptica strains, RB50 and 1289, express two antigenically distinct O-antigen serotypes, an O1 or O2 serotype. When 18 additional B. bronchiseptica strains were serotyped, all were found to express either the O1 or O2 serotype. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and PCR screening showed that the expression of either the O1 or O2 serotype correlated with the strain containing either the classical or alternative O-antigen loci respectively. Using an animal model system of infection, we found the protective component of LPS is the O-antigen and that there is a lack of cross protection between LPS vaccines containing different O-antigens. The lack of cross-reaction between O-antigen serotypes also appears to aid in the evasion of antibody-mediated clearance between strains. Our data are consistent with the idea that the O-antigen serotypes of B. bronchiseptica are encoded by separate O-antigen loci that recombine and aid in the evasion of cross-immunity between strains. These results provide a crucial understanding in the role of cross-immunity between Bordetella isolates and swine respiratory disease.

Technical Abstract: Antigenic variation is one mechanism pathogens use to avoid immune-mediated competition between closely related strains. Here, we show that two Bordetella bronchiseptica strains, RB50 and 1289, express two antigenically distinct O-antigen serotypes (O1 and O2 respectively). When 18 additional B. bronchiseptica strains were serotyped, all were found to express either the O1 or O2 serotype. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and PCR screening showed that the expression of either the O1 or O2 serotype correlated with the strain containing either the classical or alternative O-antigen loci respectively. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of 49 B. bronchiseptica strains was used to build a phylogenetic tree, which revealed that the two O-antigen loci did not associate with a particular lineage. This is the first evidence of homologous recombination of an antigenic locus between Bordetella strains. From experiments using mice vaccinated with purified LPS from strain RB50 (O1), 1289 (O2) or RB50'wbm (O-antigen deficient), our data indicate that the protective component of LPS is the O-antigen and that there is a lack of cross protection between LPS vaccines containing different O-antigens. The lack of cross-reaction between O-antigen serotypes also appears to aid in the evasion of antibody-mediated clearance between strains. Our data are consistent with the idea that the O-antigen serotypes of B. bronchiseptica are encoded by separate O-antigen loci that recombine and aid in the evasion of cross-immunity between strains.

Last Modified: 10/24/2014
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