Location: National Soil Dynamics Laboratory
Title: Peanut Performance and Weed Management in a High Residue Cover crop System Authors
Submitted to: Weed Science Society of America Meeting Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: February 2, 2009
Publication Date: February 2, 2009
Citation: Kelton, J.A., Price, A.J., Balkcom, K.S., Rowland, D., Faircloth, W.H. 2009. Peanut Performance and Weed Management in a High Residue Cover crop System [abstract]. Weed Science Society of America Meeting Abstracts. Technical Abstract: Previous research indicates conservation tillage is a viable option for successful peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production, but more study is needed to help understand interactions between cover crop residues and peanut production. Specifically, additional information is needed about the effects of varying levels of biomass residue on the peanut crop. Varying responses may result depending on cover crop levels in terms of: residue interference of preemergence (PRE) herbicide activity, stand establishment, weed suppression, and yield. The objective of this study was to determine if these aspects of peanut production respond differently depending on various cover crop residue amounts and if any residue biomass level thresholds exist for the previously mention attributes. The experiment was conducted in Dawson, GA and Headland, AL during 2007 and 2008. The study consisted of a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop planted at three different dates as well as a stale seedbed for a total of four different residue levels. Cover crops were terminated with glyphosate or paraquat in mid-April. Pendimethalin was applied PRE at 1kg ai/ha across the entire experimental area just prior to planting of the Georgia 03-L peanut variety. Data collection included cover crop biomass weights, weed control ratings at 21 DAP and 45 DAP, yields and grade of peanut. Weed control ratings showed no significant difference between residue levels for the dominant weeds, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and smallflower morningglory (Jaquemontia tamnifolia) except for the 2008 Dawson site. At 45 DAP, the high residue treatments achieved greater suppression of smallflower morningglory in comparison than fallow treatments, suggesting a potential for greater season-long weed control with high residue systems. Residue levels did not affect yields except for the 2007 test in Dawson. High residue treatments had higher yields than all other treatments during this drought year which could be indicative of reduced water loss under high residue systems.