Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: March 18, 2009
Publication Date: June 17, 2009
Citation: Callaway, T.R. 2009. Actual and future solutions for the resistance problem at the human-animal interface of resistance [abstract]. International Congress of Chemotherapy and Infection. p. 9-15. Technical Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance genes and cassettes can be harbored within the intestinal tract of food animals in both pathogenic and commensal bacteria. Levels of pathogenic and multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in the feces of animals are directly correlated to levels on carcasses. Therefore, these human health threats are now being targeted for elimination in the live animal before they can enter the food chain. New intervention strategies that reduce pathogenic bacteria populations and the antibiotic metaresistome are now, or will soon be, available. Many of these strategies utilize the naturally-occurring commensal microbial populations of the gastrointestinal tract to reduce pathogens and bacteria carrying antimicrobial resistance genes. By exploiting or increasing the energetic costs associated with maintaining antimicrobial resistance genes, we can utilize the highly competitive nature of the intestinal tract to help eliminate the unwanted pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes and organisms from environmental niches before they can affect humans. Competitive exclusion, probiotics, direct-fed microbials, prebiotics, sodium chlorate, vaccination, colicins/bacteriocins, and bacteriophage are all effective intervention strategies, but we must understand how they work so that we do not open a niche in the microbial ecosystem that can be occupied by a novel pathogen or MDR organism. Several of these methods utilize other members of the microbial ecosystem to reduce pathogens and antibiotic resistance gene incidence without resorting to medically-important antimicrobial treatments. The current presentation will describe the rationale behind the state-of-the-art use of the various competitive enhancement and anti-pathogen strategies that utilize microbial physiology and ecology as a weapon against dangerous bacteria and genes in live animals.