COUNTERMEASURES TO PREVENT THE PORCINE RESPIRATORY DISEASE COMPLEX (PRDC)
Location: Virus and Prion Research Unit
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: January 15, 2009
Publication Date: June 1, 2010
Citation: Register, K., Harvill, E. 2010. Bordetella. In: Gyles, C.L., Prescott, J.F., Songer, J.G., Thoen, C.O., editors. Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals. 4th edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IA. p. 411-427.
The genus Bordetella includes 8 formally recognized species, of which Bordetella parapertussis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella avium, and Bordetella hinzii are of veterinary interest. Bordetella pertussis, the type species, is an obligate human pathogen and the causative agent of whooping cough. B. bronchiseptica causes tracheobronchitis (kennel cough) in dogs, bronchopneumonia in numerous laboratory, companion and wild animals, neonatal pneumonia in piglets, and is an important contributor to swine atrophic rhinitis. It also rarely causes disease in humans which may, on occasion, be life-threatening. B. avium is the etiologic agent of turkey coryza and, with the exception of two recent reports describing isolation from humans, has been found exclusively in avian hosts. B. hinzii, recognized as a species since 1994, has been identified primarily from humans and poultry. It is an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised humans and some strains induce mild to moderate respiratory disease in turkeys. The remaining species of the genus include Bordetella holmesii, Bordetella petrii and Bordetella trematum. All are associated with opportunistic human infections of the respiratory tract, blood, or other body sites. An additional species isolated from humans, Bordetella ansorpii, has been described but not yet accorded standing in nomenclature. This chapter reviews current knowledge related to virulence factors, pathogenesis, disease patterns and immunity for Bordetella of veterinary importance.