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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: LIVESTOCK LOSSES FROM ABORTIFACIENT AND TERATOGENIC PLANTS Title: Lupine Induced "Crooked Calf Disease": The Last 20 Years

Authors
item Lee, Stephen
item Panter, Kip
item Gay, Clive - WASHINGTON STATE UNIV
item Pfister, James
item Ralphs, Michael
item Gardner, Dale
item Stegelmeier, Bryan
item Motteram, Ernie - WASHINGTON STATE UNIV.
item Cook, Daniel
item Welch, Kevin
item Green, Benedict
item Davis, Thomas

Submitted to: Rangelands
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 7, 2009
Publication Date: December 31, 2008
Repository URL: http://www.pprl.ars.usda.gov
Citation: Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gay, C., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Motteram, E., Cook, D., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z. 2008. Lupine Induced "Crooked Calf Disease": The Last 20 Years. Rangelands. 30(6): 13-8.

Interpretive Summary: “Crooked calf disease” is used to describe a number of birth defects in calves, including cleft palates, a twisted spine, neck, and one or both forelimbs. These defects develop when the pregnant cow eats lupines containing toxic chemicals between gestation days of 40-100. These birth defects often results in death of calves. Cows pregnant with severely deformed calves often experience difficult births and require caesarian section or veterinarian assistance for delivery. In this report, we document reported incidences of crooked calf disease and provide information to help ranchers with toxic lupine species make informed breeding and grazing management decisions.

Technical Abstract: “Crooked calf disease” is used to describe a number of skeletal malformations in newborn calves, including a twisted spine, neck, and one or both forelimbs. These malformations develop when the pregnant cow eats toxic lupines containing the alkaloids anagyrine, ammodendrine, and N-methyl ammodendrine between gestation days of 40-100. Cleft palate has also been identified as part of the syndrome. Cleft palate is induced during days 40-50 of gestation. The skeletal malformations and cleft palate often results in death of calves. Cows pregnant with severely deformed calves often experience difficult births and require caesarian section or veterinarian assistance for delivery. In this report, we document reported incidences of crooked calf disease and provide information to help ranchers with toxic lupine species make informed breeding and grazing management decisions.

Last Modified: 10/21/2014
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