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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IMPACTS OF RISING ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE AND TEMPERATURE ON CROP GROWTH, REPRODUCTIVE PROCESSES, YIELD, AND SEED QUALITY

Location: Chemistry Research Unit

Title: Seed composition, seedling emergence and early seeding vigour of red kidney bean seed produced at elevated temperature and Carbon dioxide

Authors
item Thomas, J - UNIV OF FLORIDA
item Prasad, P - KANSAS STATE UNIV
item Boote, K - UNIV OF FLORIDA
item Allen, Leon

Submitted to: Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 24, 2008
Publication Date: April 1, 2009
Citation: Thomas, J.M., Prasad, P.V., Boote, K.J., Allen Jr, L.H. 2009. Seed composition, seedling emergence and early seeding vigour of red kidney bean seed produced at elevated temperature and Carbon dioxide. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 195:148-156.

Interpretive Summary: Understanding effects of temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) on seed quality is important under both present and future climates. ARS and University of Florida scientists determined the effects of elevated growth temperature and CO2 during seed-filling of parent plants on seed composition and follow-up seedling emergence and vigor of red kidney bean. Plants of the cultivar ‘Montcalm’ were grown at daily maximum/minimum temperatures of 28/18 and 34/24 Celsius (82/64 and 93/75 Fahrenheit)and at CO2 concentrations of 350 or 700 parts per million (ambient and elevated levels, respectively). They found that elevated CO2 did not influence composition, seedling emergence, or seedling vigor of seeds produced at either temperature. However, plants grown at the higher temperature had smaller seeds, decreased glucose concentration, increased sucrose and raffinose concentrations, lower follow-up percent emergence, lower rates of seedling development, and lower seedling dry matter production regardless of CO2 concentration. Clearly, global warming could adversely impact the quality of seeds produced by kidney bean as well as decrease the growth and vigor of the next generation of plants.

Technical Abstract: Understanding effects of temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2) on seed quality is important under present and future climates. The objective was to determine the effects of elevated growth temperature and CO2 during seed-filling of parent plants on seed composition and ensuing seedling emergence and vigor of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Plants of cultivar ‘Montcalm’ were grown at diel sinusoidal maximum/minimum temperatures of 28/18 and 34/24 Celsius at ambient (350 micromol/mol) and elevated (700 micromol/mol) CO2 from emergence to maturity. Seed size and seed composition at maturity and subsequent percent emergence, seedling rate of development, and seedling dry matter were measured. Elevated CO2 did not influence seed composition, emergence, or seedling vigor of seeds produced at either temperature. However, plants grown at 34/24 compared to 28/18 Celsius had smaller seed size, decreased glucose concentration, increased concentrations of sucrose and raffinose, lower percent emergence, less seedling vigor, and lower seedling dry matter regardless of CO2 concentration. Clearly, global warming could adversely impact kidney bean seed composition as well as the growth of the next generation of plants.

Last Modified: 8/21/2014
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