DEVELOPMENT OF ACCURATE AND REPRESENTATIVE FOOD COMPOSITION DATA FOR THE U.S. FOOD SUPPLY
Location: Nutrient Data
Title: Estimation of the Vitamin D Content of Foods for the Assessment of Dietary Intake
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: November 12, 2008
Publication Date: June 5, 2009
Citation: Gebhardt, S.E., Thomas, R.G., Exler, J., Lemar, L.E., Holden, J.M. 2009. Estimation of the vitamin D content of foods for the assessment of dietary intake. International Conference on Diet and Activity Methods, June 5-7, 2009, Washington, D.C.
Vitamin D is important for bone health, and growing evidence indicates that it may reduce the risk of other diseases including colon cancer. This has resulted in great interest in being able to assess the dietary intake of vitamin D in the U.S., since many factors can impair sunlight-induced cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. To estimate vitamin D intake in large scale surveys, nutrient values must be in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Of the 7,000 foods in SR, about 2,800 foods form the foundation of the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Surveys (FNDDS), used in the What We Eat in America dietary component of NHANES.
In order to provide current and accurate vitamin D values for these 2800 foods, beginning in 2006, the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) staff conducted a review and evaluation of literature data. At the same time, NDL began collaborating with other experts to assess and improve the analytical methods, to develop quality control materials, to identify and sample major food sources of vitamin D, and to analyze these foods. Vitamin D-fortified foods that were analyzed included: fluid milks, breakfast cereals, orange juice, yogurt, and processed cheese. Naturally occurring vitamin D was analyzed in high consumption fish, eggs, meat, and poultry. Once the core vitamin D data were obtained, NDL developed and implemented standard rules for imputing vitamin D values for any survey foods where analytical data were not available. Outside experts reviewed the final vitamin D values.
The updated and expanded vitamin D values will be released in SR22 in 2009 for all foods used in the FNDDS. The USDA/ARS Food Surveys Research Group will use these values in the creation of the FNDDS 4.0, thus permitting the estimating of vitamin D intake from foods for What We Eat in America 2007-2008.