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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: SOIL AND CROP MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TO SUSTAIN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IN THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS

Location: Soil Management Research

Title: Using Lysimeters to Evaluate the Relative Mobility and Plant Uptake of Four Herbicides in a Rye Production System

Authors
item Sakaliene, Ona - LITHUANIAN INST. OF AG
item Papiernik, Sharon
item Koskinen, William
item Kavoliunaite, Irena - LITHUANIAN INST. OF AG
item Brazenaitei, Janina - VILNIUS UNIV.

Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 18, 2008
Publication Date: February 5, 2009
Repository URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10113/30306
Citation: Sakaliene, O., Papiernik, S.K., Koskinen, W.C., Kavoliunaite, I., Brazenaitei, J. 2009. Using Lysimeters to Evaluate the Relative Mobility and Plant Uptake of Four Herbicides in a Rye Production System. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57:1975-1981.

Interpretive Summary: Pesticides applied to soil can be taken up by plants and can contaminate water resources if they move downward (leach) to groundwater or run off the soil to surface water. When evaluating pesticide management practices, it is important to know how pesticides move after they are applied. Lysimeters are designed to isolate a portion of soil, restrict lateral movement of soil water into and out of the lysimeter, and provide a way to collect water that percolates through the soil. Lysimeters have been used worldwide to assess the transport and plant uptake of chemicals under relevant moisture regimes and crop production practices. We used field lysimeters to evaluate the leaching and plant uptake of the herbicides pendimethalin, clopyralid, mecoprop (MCPP), and dicamba following fall and spring application to soil cropped to winter rye. In most fall and spring trials, herbicide loss was less than 3% of the amount applied. None of the herbicides was detected in rye grain or straw at concentrations that exceed current EU or US tolerances. The results of these experiments suggest that under typical climatic conditions, current use of the herbicides pendimethalin, mecoprop, clopyralid, and dicamba in rye production is not expected to result in unacceptably high concentrations of these herbicides in groundwater or in rye grain or straw. Growers, crop consultants, extension personnel, and others can use these results to plan effective and safe herbicide application strategies. These results will also be useful to federal and state regulatory agencies and pesticide manufacturers when evaluating pesticide labeling requirements and application restrictions.

Technical Abstract: Information regarding pesticide mobility is critical for the evaluation of pesticide management practices. Lysimeters have been used worldwide to assess the transport and plant uptake of solutes under relevant moisture regimes and crop production practices. We used field lysimeters to evaluate the leaching and plant uptake of the herbicides pendimethalin, clopyralid, mecoprop (MCPP), and dicamba following fall and spring application to soil cropped to winter rye. In most fall and spring trials, mass loss of herbicide was <3% of the amount applied. Based on this 6-year experiment, it appears that clopyralid is the most mobile of the tested herbicides in this soil, followed by dicamba, mecoprop, and pendimethalin. None of the herbicides was present in rye grain or straw at concentrations that exceed current EU or US tolerances. Based on these results, it appears that there are multiple herbicide use strategies that would be acceptable for winter rye production.

Last Modified: 8/27/2014
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