ENHANCEMENT OF FRUIT AND FRUIT PRODUCT FLAVOR QUALITY USING ANALYTICAL/SENSORY METHODS
Location: Quality Improvement in Citrus and Subtropical Products Res
Title: Flavor evaluation of fresh tangerine hybrids
Submitted to: Subtropical Technology Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: October 1, 2008
Publication Date: October 16, 2008
Citation: Miyazaki, T., Plotto, A., Baldwin, E.A., Gmitter, F. 2008. Flavor evaluation of fresh tangerine hybrids. Subtropical Technology Conference Proceedings. 59:20-21.
This report describes on-going research on the quality evaluation of tangerines from the CREC breeding program begun in 2006-2007. Twelve of the 43 tangerine hybrids evaluated in 2007 were selected for re-evaluation in 2008, with 9 named commercial cultivars as references, and 8 new hybrids. Fruit were harvested monthly, washed, juiced and frozen. A 15-member panel was trained for fourteen 90-min sessions to describe aroma and flavor of tangerine juice. Nine of the panelists had previously participated in the previous year's panel. A multivariate statistical analysis showed that 'Sanguinelli', 'Temple', 'Ortanique', an LB8-9 x Valencia hybrid, and a Fallglo x Fairchild hybrid had high orange and floral aromas. Two Clementine x Minneola hybrids, two Fallglo x Fairchild hybrids and an LB8-9 x Murcott hybrid, Fallglo and Murcott, had high tangerine aroma, with some woody-spicy and sulfury aroma. In addition, the two Fallglo x Fairchild hybrids and the LB8-9 x Murcott hybrids had stronger woody-spicy and sulfury aroma notes. Flavor descriptors divided the flavor space into fresh and sour, sweet and "fruity-non-citrus", orange and floral, and grapefruit, bitter, sulfury and woody/spicy descriptors. Tangerine defined a third dimension by itself. As in 2007, an LB8-9 x Valencia hybrid, 'Temple', 'Sanguinelli', and two Clementine x Minneola hybrids were characterized by fresh and sour flavor. In 2007, multiple harvests of the two Clementine x Minneola hybrids changed their characteristics from "sour" to "sweet" and "fruity-non-citrus" with increasing harvest date; in 2008, while harvest dates were chosen at the optimum based on 2007 data, these two hybrids remained with descriptors "sour" and "fresh", indicating the seasonal effect on fruit quality. The new Fortune x Murcott and Robinson x Fairchild hybrids were also described as "sour" and "fresh", with a hint of "grapefruit" flavor. In 2008, 'Ortanique' was characterized by orange and floral flavor. As in 2007, 'Murcott' and 'Fallglo' were characterized as bitter and woody/spicy, and both Robinson x US119 hybrids were rated with the highest sweet and "fruity-non-citrus" flavors. "Pumpkin/fatty" was added as an aroma and flavor descriptor in 2008, based on consensus under the "other" descriptors used in 2007. The Robinson x Fairchild hybrid that had an "other" flavor in 2007, was more specifically characterized with a "pumpkin/fatty" flavor in 2008, in addition to being "sweet" with "fruity-non-citrus". Finally, two of the LB8-9 x Murcott hybrids that were characterized as "sweet" and "fruity-non citrus" in 2007 were described as "sour" in 2008, indicating a seasonal effect. The weather during the 2008 season had been particularly warm, imparting some stress on citrus fruit and resulting in a lower quality in general.