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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONSERVATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND EVALUATION OF CROP GENETIC RESOURCES AND ASSOCIATED INFORMATION

Location: Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit

Title: Screening of the US peanut germplasm for oil content and fatty acid composition.

Authors
item WANG, MING
item Raymer, Paul - UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
item Chinnan, Manjeet - UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
item Pittman, Roy

Submitted to: Biomass and Bioenergy
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 12, 2012
Publication Date: April 1, 2012
Repository URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/57595
Citation: Wang, M.L., Raymer, P., Chinnan, M., Pittman, R.N. 2012. Screening of the US peanut germplasm for oil content and fatty acid composition. Biomass and Bioenergy. 39:336-343.

Interpretive Summary: Biodiesel (a mixture of fatty esters) is a clean-burning fuel produced from plant oils, animal fats or greases usually by a simple process of transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols in the presence of a catalyst (such as alkali or acid) or lipase. Using plant oils as alternative sources for petroleum diesel had been explored in the past but the surge came down because the production price of biodiesel was not compatible with the price of petroleum diesel. Utilization of biodiesel will benefit the environment and agricultural economy, reduce costly petroleum imports, and promote long-term independence of fuel-supply. Since the price of petroleum diesel keeps going up, biodiesel has recently received more attention and will eventually become one of the most promising alternative, renewable fuels in the future. The oil contents and fatty acid compositions of fifty peanut accessions and two soybean accessions were analyzed and compared. In comparison of the oil content, peanut seeds contain a much higher amount of oil (51.94%) than soybean seeds (23.28%). A significant variability on the oil content (45.93% - 55.41%) was detected among peanut accessions. In comparison of the fatty acid composition, peanut seeds contain much higher amounts of oleic acid (43.62%) and behenic acid (3.22%) than soybean seeds (28.89% and 0.31%), and much lower amounts of linoleic acid (35.38%) and linolenic acid (0.07%) than soybean seeds (49.17% and 6.26%). The major differences on the fatty acid composition imply a fewer number of double bonds present in peanut oil than in soybean oil. In other words, peanut oil is less susceptible to oxidation than soybean oil. A significant variability on oleic acid (37.31% - 56.47%), linoleic acid (25.56% - 40.22%), palmitic acid (8.33% - 13.87%), and stearic acid (1.77% - 6.53%) was detected among peanut accessions. Significant negative correlations of the oleic acid with other major fatty acids were detected. Our results indicated that a higher oil content and better fatty acid composition of peanut seeds make it a better feedstock for biodiesel production. Moreover, based on the variability detected on the oil content and fatty acid composition among peanut accessions, there is great potential to increase the oil content and alter the fatty acid composition in peanut breeding programs.

Technical Abstract: Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of plant oils. The oil contents and fatty acid compositions of fifty peanut accessions and two soybean accessions were analyzed and compared. In comparison of the oil content, peanut seeds contain a much higher amount of oil (51.94%) than soybean seeds (23.28%). A significant variability on the oil content (45.93% - 55.41%) was detected among peanut accessions. In comparison of the fatty acid composition, peanut seeds contain much higher amounts of oleic acid (43.62%) and behenic acid (3.22%) than soybean seeds (28.89% and 0.31%), and much lower amounts of linoleic acid (35.38%) and linolenic acid (0.07%) than soybean seeds (49.17% and 6.26%). The major differences on the fatty acid composition imply a fewer number of double bonds present in peanut oil than in soybean oil. In other words, peanut oil is less susceptible to oxidation than soybean oil. A significant variability on oleic acid (37.31% - 56.47%), linoleic acid (25.56% - 40.22%), palmitic acid (8.33% - 13.87%), and stearic acid (1.77% - 6.53%) was detected among peanut accessions. Significant negative correlations of the oleic acid with other major fatty acids were detected. Our results indicated that a higher oil content and better fatty acid composition of peanut seeds make it a better feedstock for biodiesel production. Moreover, based on the variability detected on the oil content and fatty acid composition among peanut accessions, there is great potential to increase the oil content and alter the fatty acid composition in peanut breeding programs.

Last Modified: 7/25/2014
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