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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ENHANCING ANIMAL WELL-BEING, IMMUNOCOMPETENCE, AND PERFORMANCE IN SWINE AND BEEF CATTLE Title: Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows

Authors
item Mateo, R - TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY
item Carroll, Jeffery
item Hyum, Y - DODRAM B&F, SEOUL, KOREA
item Smith, S - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
item Kim, S - NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV

Submitted to: Journal of Animal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 25, 2008
Publication Date: January 5, 2009
Citation: Mateo, R.D., Carroll, J.A., Hyum, Y., Smith, S., Kim, S.W. 2009. Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and high levels of dietary protein on performance of sows. Journal of Animal Science. 87:948-959.

Interpretive Summary: A collaborative study was conducted involving scientists from the Livestock Issues Research Unit, Texas Tech University, Texas A&M University, North Carolina State University and Dodram B&F in Seoul, Korea, to determine the impact of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids with or without high protein levels during late gestation and throughout lactation on the performance of sows and their litters during the first parity, and the effects of O3FA on the subsequent parity. For this study, we used 64 pregnant gilts that were assigned to 4 dietary treatments from day 60 of gestation (late gestation) to day 21 of lactation. Dietary treatments were: 1) control; 2) high protein; 3) control + 0.2% omega-3 fatty acids; and 4) high protein + 0.2% omega-3 fatty acids for control and omega-3 fatty acids groups. Crude protein contents were 12.3% for late gestation and 17.9% for lactation and were 18.4% for late gestation and 19.5% for lactation for high protein and high protein plus omega-3 fatty acids. On days 60 and 110 of gestation and after farrowing (within 12 hours post-farrowing), days 10 and 21 of lactation; body weight, back fat thickness, and blood samples were obtained. Numbers of total and live born piglets and birth weights were measured within 12 hours post-farrowing. Colostrum and milk samples were obtained on days 2 and 21 of lactation, respectively. All piglets were weaned at 21 days of age. Wean to estrus interval and ADFI were recorded. The same measurements were obtained from the control and omega-3 fatty acids groups during subsequent parity. The results of this study indicate that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids alone during lactation improved growth of nursing piglets regardless of parity. However, omega-3 fatty acids supplemented with or without high protein did not affect first-parity gestation performance, although omega-3 fatty acids alone may improve subsequent piglet birth weight. This research will be of particular interest to swine producers, feed supplement companies, and other scientists in industry, academia, or government agencies working in the area of swine production and reproductive performance.

Technical Abstract: A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA), with or without high levels of protein, on the performance of sows during first and subsequent parity. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with BW of 195.0 ± 2.1 kg and backfat (BF) thickness of 12.9 ± 0.2 mm were assigned to 4 dietary treatments from d 60 of gestation (late gestation) to d 21 of lactation. Dietary treatments were: 1) control (CON); 2) high protein (HP); 3) CON + 0.2% O3FA (O3); and 4) HP + 0.2% O3FA (HPO3). For CON and O3, CP contents were 12.3% for late gestation and 17.9% for lactation and were 18.4% for late gestation and 19.5% for lactation for HP and HPO3. On d 60 and 110 of gestation and after farrowing (within 12 h post-farrowing), d 10 and 21 of lactation; BW, BF thickness, and blood samples were obtained. Numbers of total and live born piglets and birth weights were measured within 12 h post-farrowing. Colostrum and milk samples were obtained on d 2 and 21 of lactation, respectively. All piglets were weaned at 21 d. Wean to estrus interval and ADFI were recorded. The same measurements were obtained from the CON and O3 groups during subsequent parity. Dietary treatment did not affect BW, BF thickness, ADFI, and wean to estrus interval of sows during their first reproductive cycle. Supplementation of O3FA increased both 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 contents in (P < 0.05) colostrum and mature milk. First-parity litter size and piglet BW at birth did not differ among treatment groups. Piglet BW was higher (P < 0.05) for the O3 compared to both CON and HPO3 groups at d 10 and 21 of lactation. The same pattern was also noted for overall piglet weight gain. Both piglet and litter characteristics of the HP group did not differ from other groups throughout lactation. During subsequent parity, both total and live piglet birth weight tended (P < 0.07) to be higher for the O3 than the CON group. Compared to the CON group, O3 piglet BW and weight gain showed a similar pattern to the previous parity. Results indicate that O3FA alone during lactation improved growth of nursing piglets regardless of parity. However, O3FA supplemented with or without high protein did not affect first-parity gestation performance, although O3FA alone may improve subsequent piglet birth weight in the subsequent litter.

Last Modified: 12/19/2014
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